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A HISTORY OF THE MASS
AND ITS CEREMONIES IN THE
EASTERN AND WESTERN CHURCH

REV. JOHN O’BRIEN A.M.

REV. John O’Brien A.M. PROFESSOR OF SACRED LITURGY IN MOUNT ST. MARY’S COLLEGE, EMMITTSBURG, MARYLAND.

EIGHTH EDITION, REVISED.

“I would be willing to lay down my life for a single one of the Ceremonies of the Church.”—ST. TERESA.

NEW YORK: THE CATHOLIC PUBLICATION SOCIETY CO., 9 BARCLAY STREET. 1881.

Imprimatur: NEW YORK, MARCH, 25, 1879.

A new work, entitled “A History of the Mass and its Ceremonies in the Eastern and Western Church,” by the Rev. John O’Brien, of Mount
St. Mary’s College, Emmittsburg, having been carefully examined and commended by competent judges, is hereby approved by us.

X JAMES, Archbishop of Baltimore. BALTIMORE, FEAST OF ST. BENEDICT, 1879.

CONTENTS

Title Page: A HISTORY OF THE MASS AND ITS CEREMONIES IN THE EASTERN AND WESTERN CHURCH

EXPLANATION OF THE CHURCH FRONTISPIECE

PREFACE

THE TITLE OF THE BOOK

THE ORIENTAL SCHISMATIC CHURCH

A BRIEF DISSERTATION ON THE PRINCIPAL LITURGIES IN USE IN THE EAST AND WEST AT THE PRESENT DAY

THE LITURGIES OF THE WESTERN CHURCH

HISTORY OF THE MASS

CHAPTER I
THE MASS—ORIGIN OF THE WORD, ETC.

THE NAMES BY WHICH THE MASS WAS KNOWN IN THE GREEK CHURCH IN EARLY TIMES

DIFFERENT KINDS OF MASS

DAYS UPON WHICH MASS IS NOT CELEBRATED

THE FIRST MASS—BY WHOM CELEBRATED—WHEN, WHERE, AND IN WHAT LANGUAGE

THE LANGUAGE IN WHICH THE FIRST MASS WAS CELEBRATED

APPARATUS USED AT THE FIRST MASS

THE LANGUAGES IN WHICH MASS IS CELEBRATED TO-DAY THROUGHOUT CHRISTENDOM

PRECEDENTS FOR USING AN UNKNOWN TONGUE, TAKEN FROM ANCIENT SOURCES

WHY THE CHURCH RETAINS THE USE OF THE LATIN IN HER SERVICE

CHAPTER II
SACRED VESTMENTS

THE AMICE

THE ALB

THE CINCTURE

THE MANIPLE

THE STOLE

THE CHASUBLE

THE BERRETTA

THE ZUCCHETTO

THE COLLAR

THE CASSOCK

COLORS OF THE VESTMENTS

CHAPTER III
SACRED VESSELS

THE CHALICE

THE PATEN

THE CIBORIUM

THE MONSTRANCE

WHO MAY TOUCH THE SACRED VESSELS

APPALLING PUNISHMENTS WITH WHICH ALMIGHTY GOD SOMETIMES VISITS THE PROFANERS OF THE SACRED VESSELS AND VESTMENTS OF THE ALTAR

CHAPTER IV
CHALICE LINENS

CORPORAL

PURIFICATOR

PALL

VEIL

THE BURSE

CHAPTER V
THE MANNER OF RESERVING THE BLESSED SACRAMENT

HOW THE BLESSED SACRAMENT IS RESERVED NOW

RESERVATION OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST BY THE ORIENTALS

THE PYX

CHAPTER VI
INCENSE

THE THURIBLE

ORIENTAL USAGE

CHAPTER VII
SACRED MUSIC AND MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

SACRED MUSIC

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS

CHAPTER VIII
THE VARYING RITES WITHIN THE CHURCH

CARTHUSIANS

CARMELITES

DOMINICANS

MOZARABIC LITURGY

AMBROSIAN LITURGY

GALLIC RITE

CHAPTER IX
THE ALTAR

MATERIAL

THE ALTAR USED AT THE LAST SUPPER

ALTAES OF GOLD, SILVER, AND PRECIOUS STONES

SACRED SYMBOLISM OF ALTARS

RIGHT AND LEFT OF THE ALTAR

COVERING AND FURNITURE OF THE ALTAR

ALTARS OF THE ORIENTALS

HOW THE ALTARS OF THE ORIENTALS ARE DRESSED

ALTAR CARDS

CHAPTER X
RELICS

ANCIENT CUSTOMS

PRESENT CUSTOMS

HOLY EUCHARIST DEPOSITED IN PLACE OF RELICS

LETTER OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN ENCLOSED

RELICS OF THE ORIENTALS

CHAPTER XI
CRUCIFIXES AND CROSSES

CRUCIFIXES

DIFFERENT KINDS OF CROSSES

NUMBER OF NAILS BY WHICH OUR LORD WAS FASTENED TO THE CROSS

THE PRACTICE OF THE ORIENTAL CHURCH REGARDING THE CRUCIFIX

CHAPTER XII
LIGHTS

ANTIQUITY OF LIGHTS UPON THE ALTAR

MYSTIC SIGNIFICATION OF LIGHTS

LIGHTS GIVEN THE NEWLY-BAPTIZED

LIGHTS AS MARKS OF RESPECT

LIGHTS AT SOLEMN HIGH MASS

CHAPTER XIII
THE TABERNACLE

CHAPTER XIV
THE MISSAL

MISSAL STAND

ANCIENT MISSALS

MISSALS OF THE ORIENTALS

NESTORIAN MISSALS

COPTIC MISSAL

CHAPTER XV
BELLS

ANCIENT SUBSTITUTE FOR BELLS

HOW THE FAITHFUL WERE SUMMONED TO CHURCH DURING THE DAYS OF PERSECUTION

BELLS SILENT IN HOLT WEEK

CHAPTER XVI
BREAD USED FOR CONSECRATION

LEAVENED AND UNLEAVENED BREAD

HOW THE BREADS ARE BAKED

DEVICES USED IN STAMPING THE BREAD

BY WHOM THE BREADS ARE MADE

SIZE OF THE ALTAR-BREAD

FORM OF THE HOST

BREADS OF THE EASTERN CHURCH

CEREMONIES ATTENDING THE MAKING OF THE ALTAR-BREAD IN THE EAST

BREAD USED BY THE GREEK CHURCH

INSCRIPTIONS IMPRESSED ON THE HOLY BREAD

CHAPTER XVII
WINE

WINE OF THE ORIENTAL CHURCH

CRUETS

CHAPTER XVIII
NUMBER OF MASSES THAT A PRIEST MAY SAY UPON THE SAME DAY

CHRISTMAS DAY AN EXCEPTION

THE PRACTICE OF THE ORIENTAL CHURCH REGARDING THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

CHAPTER XIX
CONCELEBRATION

ORIENTAL USAGE IN THIS MATTER

CHAPTER XX
CUSTOMS RELATING TO THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

MASS MUST BE SAID WITH SHOES ON

MASS MUST BE CELEBRATED FASTING

WASHING OF THE HANDS

THE SIGN OF THE CROSS

CONFITEOR

CHAPTER XXI
THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

THE INTROIT

KYRIE ELEISON

GLORIA IN EXCELSIS

DOMINUS VOBISCUM

PAX VOBIS

MANNER OF RECITING THE PRAYERS

NUMBER OF COLLECTS SAID IN THE MASS

AMEN

THE EPISTLE

THE GRADUAL

SEQUENCES

THE GOSPEL

CHAPTER XXII
THE SERMON

WHOSE DUTY IT WAS TO PREACH

LAYMEN ALLOWED TO PREACH

DEPORTMENT OF THE PEOPLE DURING THE SERMON

POSTURE OF THE PREACHER

INFLUENCE OF THE DISCIPLINE OF THE SECRET ON THE PREACHING

PREACHING IN THE ORIENTAL CHURCH

DISMISSAL OF THE CATECHUMENS

CHAPTER XXIII
THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

THE SYMBOL, OR CREED

THE PART COMPOSED BY EACH APOSTLE

CREED OF NICÆA

CONSTANTINOPOLITAN CREED

WHEN THE NICENE CREED BECAME PART OF THE MASS

PART OF THE MASS AT WHICH THE CREED IS RECITED

TO WHAT MASSES THE CREED IS PROPER

CHAPTER XXIV
THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

THE OFFERTORY

THE ORDER IN WHICH THE OFFERINGS WERE PRESENTED

ANCIENT LOCAL CUSTOMS REGARDING THE OFFERING OF GIFTS

MUSIC DURING THE OFFERTORY

WHY THE WATER IS BLESSED BEFORE PUTTING IT INTO THE CHALICE

OBLATION OF THE CHALICE

THE “SECRETÆ,” OR SECRET PRAYERS

OFFERTORY IN THE ORIENTAL CHURCH

THE HOLY FAN

THE STRAINER

THE COMB

CHAPTER XXV
THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

THE PREFACE

ANTIQUITY OF THE PREFACE, AND THE NUMBER OF PREFACES NOW USED

TERMINATION OF THE PREFACE

PREFACES OF THE ORIENTAL CHURCH

CHAPTER XXVI
THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

THE CANON

WHY CALLED BY THE NAME OF CANON

THE EXTRAORDINARY CARE TAKEN BY THE CHURCH OF THIS PART OF THE MASS

ITS GREAT ANTIQUITY

NAMES BY WHICH THE CANON WAS FORMERLY KNOWN

WHERE THE CANON ANCIENTLY BEGAN

MANNER OF READING THE CANON

THE PICTURE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE CANON

PRAYING FOR TEMPORAL RULERS

CANON OF THE ORIENTAL CHURCH

THE SECOND PRAYER OF THE CANON, OR THE MEMENTO FOR THE LIVING

DISSERTATION ON THE DIPTYCHS

CHAPTER XXVII
THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

THE CONSECRATION

CONSECRATION OF THE CHALICE

THE ELEVATION

CONSECRATION IN THE EASTERN CHURCH

MIXING WARM WATER WITH THE PRECIOUS BLOOD AFTER CONSECRATION

MEMENTO FOR THE DEAD

CHAPTER XXVIII
THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

THE PATER NOSTER

SEQUENCE OF THE LORD’S PRAYER

EXPLANATION OF THESE CEREMONIES

AN ANCIENT CUSTOM

AGNUS DEI

THE PAX

COMMUNION OF THE PRIEST

CHAPTER XXIX
THE CELEBRATION OF MASS

COMMUNION OF THE PEOPLE

HOLY COMMUNION IN ANCIENT TIMES

COMMUNION UNDER BOTH KINDS

COMMUNION UNDER THE SPECIES OF BREAD

PERMISSION GRANTED TO BRING THE BLESSED SACRAMENT HOME

THE HOLY EUCHARIST CARRIED ON JOURNEYS

HOLY COMMUNION GIVEN TO CHILDREN

THE BLESSED EUCHARIST BURIED WITH THE DEAD

HOLY COMMUNION WHEN GIVEN BY THE BISHOP

RESPECT SHOWN TO THE BLESSED EUCHARIST

HOLY COMMUNION IN THE EASTERN CHURCH

END OF MASS IN ANCIENT TIMES

THE GOSPEL OF ST. JOHN

THE ANTIDORON

A LIST

OF THE PRINCIPAL AUTHORS CONSULTED IN WRITING THE PRESENT WORK








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