HOME CHAT NAB PRAYERS FORUMS COMMUNITY RCIA MAGAZINE CATECHISM LINKS CONTACT
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 CATHOLIC SAINTS INDEX  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 CATHOLIC DICTIONARY  A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z


Home
 
Bible
 
Catechism
 
Chat
 
Catholic Encyclopedia
 
Church Fathers
 
Classics Library
 
Church Documents
 
Discussion
 
Mysticism
 
Prayer
 
Prayer Requests
 
RCIA
 
Vocations
 
Ray of Hope
 
Saints
 
Social Doctrine
 
Links
 
Contact
 







Christ In Type And Prophecy: Volumes 1&2 by Rev. A.J. Maas S.J.

IS. 63:1–6

1. CONNECTION OF THE PROPHECY WITH THE CONTEXT.—In the preceding chapters the prophet describes in vivid colors the benefits of the Messianic kingdom, in order to excite desire for it. Thus, in 60:1–22 he treats of the glory of the new Sion; in 61:1–11 he considers the author of this glory; in 62:1–12 he draws the conclusion from the preceding chapters, and stirs up a lively desire for Messianic benefits. In the prophecy we are now about to consider the prophet returns and considers the way in which the Servant of Jehovah will bring about this happy state of renovation. The prophecy itself is a dramatic dialogue between the Messias returning as a victor from Edom and the prophet; under the form of an ideal humiliation of nations, marshalled upon the territory of Israel’s inveterate foe, is expressed the triumph of Israel over its enemies. The dramatic dialogue is followed by a canticle of thanksgiving.

2. FALSE EXPLANATIONS OF THE PROPHECY.—a. Knobel applies the prediction to the victory of Cyrus over Crœsus and the Lydians near Sardes (Herod. i. 80; Cyrop. vii. 1). b. Eichhorn and Koppe look upon the passage as a threat against the Edomites, who are to be destroyed by Nabuchodonosor. c. Grotius and Calmet see in the prediction a reference to the deeds of Judas Machabæus (1 Mach. 5:3 f.; 65; 2 Mach. 10:15; Joseph. Antiq. XII. xi. 12). d. Moldenhawer applies the prophecies to the exploits of Hyrcanus. e. Sanchez and Dereser understand by Edom the kingdom of Babylon; Isaias, therefore, predicted the conquest of Babylon through Cyrus. f. Others, again, have understood the Roman empire, inimical to religion as it was, by the name of Edom, or even the Antichrist himself (cf. Vitringa). g. Nägelsbach is of opinion that Isaias connected this prophecy with the victory over the Edomites gained by Amasias (4 Kings 17:7; 2 Par. 25:5–12), and that he viewed this fact as a type of the Messianic times. It may be noted in general that no king, as such, has verified the words of the prophet, though it is not fully certain whether the prophet may not have taken occasion from the victory of a king to describe the Messias’ conquest of his enemies. Still, taking the words of the prediction in their literal meaning, it would be difficult indeed, if not impossible, to find any earthly king that could have served as the type of the Messias in the various details described by Isaias. h. Delitzsch’s observation that the conqueror mentioned by the prophet must be Jehovah and not the Messias, because the former’s garments are described as being sprinkled with the blood of his enemies, while Christ’s garments were sprinkled with his own blood, is not of much weight. On account of the many authorities that agree with Delitzsch (Gesenius, Hitzig, Knobel, Hahn, Nägelsbach, Sein, etc.), we must add that Christ’s victory over his enemies consisted precisely in having his garments sprinkled with his own blood. The prophet intends only to urge this Messianic victory over all God’s enemies, and the conqueror’s labor and hardship in gaining the same, without precisely determining whose blood is staining his garments. On the other hand, the work of Jehovah is not represented by the inspired writers as being accompanied by labor and hardship, so that it is even antecedently probable that Isaias, in the passage now under discussion, intends to speak of the Messias rather than of Jehovah himself.

3. MESSIANIC CHARACTER OF THE PROPHECY.—a. The prophecy is Messianic by reason of its contents; for the work which is here ascribed to the conqueror is, in the former chapters of the prophet, ascribed to the Servant of the Lord, whom we have already identified with the Messias (cf. Is. 49:4, 7; 50:4–8; 53:1–12; 42:1 ff.; 49:1 f.; 61:1 f.; etc.). b. The New Testament history shows that Christ’s work corresponds exactly with the prophetic description. For while the history of the passion furnishes the fulfilment of the Messianic hardships and trials, the history of the resurrection and of the ascension is the accomplishment of the triumphal entry described by Isaias (cf. Pinto, Sasbout, a Lapide, Heb. 1:3; 7:26). c. The patristic testimonies favoring the Messianic interpretation of the prophecy may be found in Reinke, pp. 354, 359; references to the same are given in Kilber’s Analysis Biblica (ed. Tailhan, i. p. 391). Almost all interpreters who have written in Latin defend the Messianic bearing of the prophecy. Among the more recent ones may be enumerated Allioli, Bade, Loch, Neteler, Rohling, Trochon, etc. d. To these proofs we may add the unequivocal tradition of the Jewish writers regarding the Messianic bearing of the prediction.

Verse 2. The Pesikta (ed. Buber, p. 149, col. 1) has the following passage: “There are seven garments which the Holy One, blessed be his name, has put on since the world began, or will put on before the hour when he will visit with his wrath the godless Edom.… He will put on the seventh robe when he punishes Edom. Then will he clothe himself in red; for it is said, Why is thy apparel red?”

Verse 4. The Talmud (Sanhedrin, fol. 99, col. 1) reads: “Rabbi said: The days of the Messias will be 365 years, according to the number of the days of the sun; for it is said: The day of vengeance is in my heart, the year of my redemption is come.” Yalkut on Psalm 71 (72):5 has the following words: “Rabbi Berachya said in the name of Hiya: The days of the Messias will be six hundred years, for it is said: For as the days of a tree are the days of my people (Is. 65:22). The root of a tree lasts six hundred years. Rabbi Eliezer says one thousand years, because it is said: The day of vengeance is in my heart (Is. 63:4). A day of the blessed God is a thousand years.” Midrash of Eccles. 12:10 adds another testimony: “Rabbi Saul of Nava said in the name of Rabbi Simeon: If some one asks thee, when the time of redemption comes, reply: The day of vengeance is in my heart.”

IS. 63:1–6

Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bosra, this beautiful one in his robe, walking in the greatness of his strength. I that speak justice, and am a defender to save. Why then is thy apparel red, and thy garments like theirs that tread in the winepress? I have trodden the winepress alone, and of the Gentiles there is not a man with me; I have trampled on them in my indignation, and have trodden them down in my wrath, and their blood is sprinkled upon my garments, and I have stained all my apparel. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, the year of my redemption is come. I looked about and there was none to help; I sought and there was none to give aid; and my own arm hath saved for me, and my indignation itself hath helped me. And I have trodden down the peoples in my wrath, and have made them drunk in my indignation, and have brought down their strength to the earth.

The Messias is here represented as the person nearest related to Israel and to all those that are typically contained in Israel, i.e, to all the redeemed Christians willing to join in Christ’s victory over their arch fiend. As in his capacity of prophet the Messias speaks to us on the part of God, and in his capacity of king he leads us, even outwardly, to our proper destiny; as in his capacity of priest he speaks on our behalf to God,—so does he, in his capacity of Goel, protect us against all the assaults of our most powerful and bitter enemies, and avenge our injury if, perchance, our enemy may have gained any temporary advantage over us.








Copyright ©1999-2018 e-Catholic2000.com