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A Manual Of Councils Of The Holy Catholic Church -Rev. Edward H. Landon. M.A.

ICONIUM (256). [Concilium Iconiense.] Held about 256. Composed of the bishops of the provinces of Cappadocia, Galatia, Cilicia, and of others in that vicinity. Baptism conferred out of the Church was declared to be absolutely null and void.—Tom. i. Conc. p. 751.

ICONIUM (about 377–378). Under St Amphilochius, in which a synodal letter was drawn up, addressed probably to certain bishops who had met together, and written to Amphilochius, enquiring why any fuller confession was required on the divinity of the Holy Ghost than that made at Nicea.

ILIBERUS. See ELVIRA.

ILLYRICUM (372). [Concilium Illyricum.] Held about 372 (according to some, in 365), by order of the Emperor Valentinian. A large number of bishops were present. After a long and profound investigation of the subject, they declared in a synodal letter to the Churches of Asia, &c., that they recognised one Substance in the Three Divine Persons, and utterly rejected with anathema those who denied it. A decree was published, containing the faith as set forth at Nicea, in which the fathers declared that they held the same faith with the councils lately convoked at Rome and in Gaul, viz., that there is one only and the same substance of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, in Three Persons, or “Hypostases.”—Tom. ii. Conc. p 830.

INA (688–705). Laws of, published in a council, name unknown, between 688 and 705, probably 692.

INGELHEIM (948). [Concilium Ingelenheimense.] Held June 27, 948, in the presence of the Emperor, Otho I., and King Louis Outremer. Marinus, the Roman legate, presided; and thirty-two bishops, together with many abbots, canons, and monks, attended. King Louis complained of the persecution which he endured from Hugo, Count of Paris; also Artaldus of Rheims made complaint against Hugo, his competitor in the see of Rheims. Sigebold, the deacon of the last-mentioned Hugo, was deposed by the council as a calumniator, Hugo excommunicated, and Artaldus re-instated. It was also decreed that Hugo, Count of Paris, should be excommunicated, unless he would submit to the judgment of the council. Ten canons were published.

The three first relate to the above-mentioned excommunication of Hugo de Vermandois and his deacon, and to the threatened excommunication of the Count of Paris.

4. Forbids any layman to present any clerk to a church, or to dispossess him of it without the consent of the bishop.

6. Orders that the whole of Easter week be kept as a festival, and the three days following Whit-Sunday.

7. Orders that St Mark’s day be kept with fasting, on account of the great Litany, as was done on the rogation days preceding the feast of the Ascension.

9. Orders that all differences as to tithe be settled in an ecclesiastical synod, instead of in the civil courts. (See C. of VERNUM and MONSON.)—Tom. ix. Conc. p. 623.

IRELAND (456). [Concilium Hibernicum.] Held about 456. The canons of this council are thirty-four in number, and have the names of St Patrick and two other bishops, one named Auxilius, and the other Jeserinus (or Iserninus), at their head. They are addressed to the priests, deacons, and other clergy.

6. Orders that those of the clergy, from the ostiarius to the priest, who do not dress with proper decency, and who do not keep their hair cut short, after the Roman fashion, or whose wives go about unveiled, shall be separated from the Church.

7. Enjoins all clerks, unless in a state of slavery, to be present every day and night at the holy office.

9. Forbids all suspicious intercourse between monks and nuns, not allowing them to frequent the same hostelry, or to drive about the country in the same carriage.

10. Is directed against those of the clergy who are careless and negligent in saying the office, and who wear their hair long.

11. Excommunicates those who receive excommunicated clerks.

12 and 13. Forbid to receive alms from an excommunicated person, or to receive the offerings of the heathens.

14. Orders one year of penitence for the sins of homicide or fornication, and for consulting wizards.

15. Orders six months’ penance for a theft, twenty days of which term are to be spent fasting upon bread alone.

18. Refuses an entrance into the Church even on Easter night, to all excommunicated persons who have not been admitted to penance.

19 and 22. Excommunicate a woman who leaves her husband, and marries another man; and her father also, if he is consenting to the act.

20. Excommunicates those who refuse to pay their debts.

21. Excommunicates a Christian, who, having a cause against another Christian, brings it before the civil courts instead of referring it to the Church.

23. Orders that if a priest have built a church, he shall not offer there until the bishop have consecrated it.

24. Forbids a stranger establishing himself in any place to baptise, or to celebrate the communion, or to consecrate, or even to build a church, without first obtaining the bishop’s permission.

25. Directs that during the time which the bishop shall pass at each church in his diocese, all the offerings then made by the faithful shall be at his disposal, to be applied either to his own use, or to that of the poor.

29. Orders that all candidates for holy baptism shall fast for forty days previously, and forbids that sacrament to be administered to them otherwise.

30. Forbids a bishop to celebrate the Holy Eucharist when out of his own diocese on Sundays, and to ordain without the diocesan’s permission.

33. Forbids British clergymen, coming over to Ireland, to exercise their functions, unless they bring a letter from their bishop.—Tom. iii. Conc. p. 1478. Wilkins’ Conc., vol. i. p. 2.

IRELAND (456). Another council was held somewhere about the same time. Attributed also to St Patrick, although the heading of it bears neither his name, nor that of any other bishop; and there is no decisive evidence to determine either the place of holding or the date. The mention in the second canon of a heathen population still existing, shows that it is to be referred to a period not very remote from the last.

Thirty-two canons in all were published.

1. Forbids all communication with sinners, probably meaning excommunicated persons.

2. Forbids to receive anything at the hand of the heathen (“iniquorum”), except food and clothing, when absolutely necessary; because a lamp takes only the oil it needs to support it.

7. Forbids to rebaptise any who have received the Creed, by whomsoever administered; since the iniquity of the sower infects not the seed itself.

9. Forbids the ministers of the Church who have fallen into any sin forbidden by the canons, to be ever again admitted to the exercise of their functions; but permits them to retain their ecclesiastical title.

16. Declares the election of a bishop, not made as the apostle enjoins, by another bishop, to be null and void.

17. Directs that the monks shall live in solitude, without worldly riches, under the control of the bishop or abbot, renouncing everything beyond the bare necessaries of life, as being called upon to suffer cold, and nakedness, and hunger, and thirst, and watchings, and fastings.

18. Bishops and doctors are here declared to be the seed that brought forth a hundredfold; clergymen and chaste widows, that which produced sixtyfold; and laymen perfectly believing the Holy Trinity, that which increased thirtyfold. There are none but these in the Lord’s harvest, and monks and nuns are ranked in the highest class.

19. Prescribes eight days for catechising before baptism; and fixes the season for administering that holy sacrament at Easter, Whitsuntide, and Epiphany.

22. Declares that person to be an infidel who refuses to communicate on Easter-night.

25. Forbids to marry a brother’s wife; because the wife being one flesh with her husband, she is, in fact, sister to the husband’s brother.—Tom. iii. Conc. p. 1482. Wilkins’ Conc., vol. i. p. 4.

IRELAND (684). Another council was held in Ireland in the year 684, according to Mansi, who adds, that the canons of this and of other councils held about this time, form together the code known as the “Irish Code.” The canons of this council are chiefly directed against sins of impurity, for which they appoint various kinds of penance.—Mansi, tom. i. Supp. col. 513 and 514.

IRELAND (1097). Held in 1097. In this council a petition was drawn up and sent to Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, by the King of Ireland, Murchertacus, and by the Irish bishops and others, that he would erect the city of Waterford into a bishopric, on account of its increasing population, which he did; Malchus, a monk, was consecrated the first bishop of that see.—Labbe, x. p. 613. Wilkins’ Conc., vol. i. p. 374.

ISAURIA (458). Held in Isauria in 458, by Basil, Archbishop of Seleucia, from which he addressed a letter to the Emperor Leo.

ISLE (IN COMPTAT VENAISSIN) (1288). [Concilium Insulanum.] Held in 1288, by Rostang de Capoc, Archbishop of Arles, assisted by four bishops and the deputies of four who were absent. They republished many of the canons made in the former councils of the province, and added one new one, to the effect that a god-parent should give to the infant only the alb, or white dress, in which it was to be christened.

ISPAHAN (450–460). [Synodus ad Sapeban.] Held between 450 and 460. Six years after the death of St Isaac, Catholic of the Armenians, many bishops of the Armenian Church were present, who drew up a synodical letter to Proclus, Patriarch of Constantinople, which was read in the Fifth Collation of the Fifth Œcumenical Synod. The occasion of the council was the translations of the works of Theodorus of Mopsuestia and others, which were circulated by the Nestorians in Armenia.—Orien’s Christ., Tom i. p. 1377.

ITALY (381). [Concilium Italicum.] Held by St Ambrose. The acts of this council remaining to us are only two letters, addressed to the Emperor Theodosius, which may be seen in St Ambrose, Ep. 13 and 14.—Sozom. vii. c. ii.








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