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An Exposition Of The Gospels by The Most Rev. John Macevilly D.D.

In this chapter, our Lord treats of the Parable of the good Shepherd (1–6). His hearers understood not its object or tendency (7). He then explains the parable, and applying it to Himself, He states that He is Himself the good Shepherd. He points out the characteristics or qualities of a good Shepherd, and contrasts him with selfish hirelings, who desert their flocks at the first approach of danger (7–15).

He conveys that He is Himself prepared, at His Father’s command, to give His life freely for His flock (15–19).

He reproaches the Jews with refusing to believe in Him, notwithstanding the evidence of works proving His Divinity (19–25).

He asserts His identity with His Father (30). The Jews understanding Him correctly to claim equality with God, threaten to stone Him as a blasphemer. Our Lord confirms this impression, as it was correct on the part of the Jews, by several arguments, and repeats His claim to be regarded as the Eternal Son of God, consubstantial with the Father (31–38).

By an exercise of His Almighty power, He escapes from them and crosses the Jordan into Pærea, where He remained for some time (39–42).

Commentary

1. “Amen, amen.” The repetition of the word, “Amen,” when prefixed by our Lord to any assertion, conveys the most solemn asseveration.

“I say unto you, he that entereth,” etc. This parable of the sheepfold, etc., was uttered by our Lord, in connexion with the preceding, including the cure of the blind man, as appears from v. 19.

Some, however, hold that some interval elapsed between what is recorded here and the preceding. But, the words “Amen, amen,” with which the present account commences, would show, that He is not entering on a new subject, as these words are not employed for the commencement of a discourse, and the whole discourse looks like a continuation of what goes before.

Some Expositors, therefore, maintain, that this tenth chapter should begin at v. 19 of c. 9. “For judgment am I come unto the world.” The division of chapters was made, not by the Evangelist; but, by Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caso, about the middle of the 13th century.

The casting out of the man, cured by our Lord, from their place of meeting, possibly, the Synagogue of the Jews (c. 9. v. 34), with the view of showing that our Lord was a false teacher—He and all His followers having been cast out from the Jewish Church, apostates from the Jewish religion, placed outside the Synagogue or true assembly of God’s people—gave occasion to this parable of the sheepfold.

In it, our Lord wishes to convey, the opposite of what they thought, viz., that far from being a false Prophet, in consequence of His exclusion from the Synagogue, He was, on the contrary, on the way into the sheepfold—the authority of the Synagogue being now abolished—and as the Scribes and Pharisees refused to enter into His sheepfold, they were rejected and reprobated by God. The parable continues up to v. 11, and there our Lord Himself makes the application.

“He that entereth not by the door,” that is, the passage open for all who have no sinister design in entering “into the sheepfold,” “climbeth up another way,” whether through a window or any breach in the wall of the enclosure, “the same is a thief,” whose only object is to steal away the sheep privately and unobserved, “and a robber,” whose object is to carry them off forcibly, “to kill and destroy them.” The sheepfold was open above; it was made of hurdles and wicker work. He enters not by the door, who enters not by Christ, the door of the Church, and possessing no legitimate delegation from God, assumes an office to which he is not called by God, like Aaron. Our Lord alludes to such men as Theodas and Judas of Galilee (Acts 5:36, 37), who claimed to be regarded as the Messias. He also refers to the Pharisees, who were opposing Him and turning away the people from Him. In a word, He refers to all who undertook, unsent, to guide the people, like those referred to by Jeremias, c. 23:21: “I did not send Prophets, yet, they ran; I have not spoken to them, yet, they prophesied.”

2. “He that entereth by the door is the shepherd,” etc. His entering by the door is a proof that He is the owner, who has a right to go in and go out, on His legitimate business, in caring and looking after the flock.

Christ, who is the door, enters through Himself into the sheepfold. It is by His authority, all others legitimately enter into it. Moreover, as our Lord has two natures, Christ, as man, enters through Himself, as God; although, in the literal sense, the door and the Pastor are different. In the application, they are the same thing, “Intrat per Christum, tanquam ostium, qui in illum credit; et qui illum in regimine fidelium imitatur.”—(St. Augustine.)

3. “The porter,” designates the man appointed to guard the entrance, to admit all having a claim, and exclude intruders. This true Pastor knows all His sheep, and has a different name for each. The sheep “hear,” that is, recognise “His voice,” His peculiar tone or whistle, leaving their pasture to follow Him; so do the faithful, recognising the voice of Christ, receive His doctrines and obey His precepts.

“He calleth His own sheep by name,” taking special care of each, and attending to their individual wants. So does Christ by Himself, and also through the pastors of His Church, specially attend to the spiritual wants and necessities of each member of His flock.

“The porter,” means the Holy Ghost, who opens the door into the Church to Christ, giving Him authority, by the wonderful works wrought through Him, as also by the descent on Him at Baptism. The same Holy Ghost, it is, that places other pastors over the Church. “Quos posuit Spiritus Sanctus, Episcopos, regere Ecclesiam Dei.” (Acts 20)

4. “The sheep follow Him.” The contrary usage prevails in the West; the shepherd follows the sheep and drives them before him. In the EAST, the shepherd precedes them. Here, it is meant to point out the care which the pastors of the Church should show in protecting their flocks from the inroads of wolves, and guarding them against all dangers. There is allusion also to their holding out before them the light and guidance of a good example.

5. The sheep “know not,” the peculiar tone of “voice,” nor the whistling “of strangers.” The true faithful shun those, who deliver doctrines or precepts different from what had been pointed out to them by the voice of their true pastors, whom they recognise as inculcating doctrines and precepts that emanate from God.

6. “The proverb.” It may be called a “parable,” which is longer than a “proverb.” By a “proverb,” is meant a trite, short, pithy sentence, expressing some well-known truth, or some common fact, ascertained from experience. The three other Evangelists call such, “parables.” St. John, “proverbs.” The Greek word for “parable” only occurs in the three first Evangelists. St. John, in every instance, terms such illustrations not παραβολαιʼ (parables); but, παρομιαι (proverbs). The Hebrew for both is the same, Marshah. Hence, the Septuagint translators of the Book of Solomon, translate the word, at one time, parable; at another, proverb. Both words are often interchanged and used as convertible terms. The proverb is but a condensed parable; the essence and substance of a parable.

“They understood not what He spoke.” They understood well the familiar allusions literally contained in the parable, as these were drawn from common life, regarding sheep, shepherds and sheepfolds, well known to them. But, the scope and tendency of the parable, or what it was meant to illustrate, they understood not, and this our Lord, very probably, intended, so as to avoid rousing their anger too soon against Him, as “His hour had not yet come.” The foregoing is the parable in its literal sense, containing, like almost all parables, several ornamental parts not meant to illustrate the principal subject for elucidation; and although our Lord applies its most prominent parts in the following verses 7–10; there are, still, several parts, the mystical or spiritual meaning of which is left to be explained by others. On these points, Commentators hold different opinions. Our Redeemer only explains the sense or principal part of the parable; viz., that He Himself is the door; and that no one can be saved except through Him. He Himself explains v. 7, states who or what is meant by “the door.”

7. In the most solemn way, “Amen, amen,” He assures them, that He Himself is “the door of the sheep,” that it is only by faith in Him, as the Eternal, consubstantial Son of God, sent into the world to save sinners, man can be justified. “No other name under Heaven whereby man can be saved” (Acts 4:12). He employs the similitude of the pastor to convey that all others are mercenaries, seeking themselves, and not their flocks, like Him whom alone, therefore, they should follow.

8. “All OTHERS, as many as have come,” of themselves, unsent by Me, not in connexion with Me or subordinate to Me, affecting to be duly commissioned.

“Are thieves and robbers.” The Prophets of old, who were sent, and entered the fold through Christ’s future merits, are not, therefore, referred to.

He also, very probably, refers to those who came, claiming to be the Pastor—the Messias or Christ so long expected—such as Theodas, Simon Magus, etc. This interpretation derives probability from our Lord, calling Himself “the Pastor” (ὅ ποιμην) (v. 14). In this sense only, could it be said, that, “the others” were “thieves,” etc., since the true Prophet did not claim to be the Pastor or Messias. Hence, He speaks of those (the false Prophets) who pretended to be sent by God, as the Messias. He would seem to note specially the Pharisees, etc., who, seeing the mark of the Messiah in Christ, rejected Him, and taking upon themselves to govern the people, burst into the fold in His own time. The word, “are,” gives this interpretation great probability.

“And the sheep heard them not.” The pious and humble portion of the Jewish nation, “did not hear them,” or embrace their teachings. If they followed them, they would cease to belong to Christ’s sheepfold.

9. “He shall be saved,” by entering through Me and by faith in Me, it being understood that he shall persevere in performing everything necessary, good works, etc.

“And he shall go in, and go out,” not go out from the Church; but, to find pastures without any fear, under my guidance, as Shepherd. Or, it may mean: shall, freely, and with all confidence and a sense of security, discharge the duties assigned to him.

“And shall find pastures,” the pastures and spiritual nourishment of true, sound doctrine. It is disputed among Commentators whether this refers to the sheep or to the Pastors. It is in favour of the former, that it is the sheep, that are saved, the Pastor, that saves.

10. “The thief,” who does not enter by the door, but privately steals in, the Heretic, the Schismatic, the Scribe and Pharisee, the false Christ, “come not, but to steal,” the flock from Christ and the Church; to carry them off to the synagogue of Satan, and thus “kill” their souls—“and destroy them,” in the everlasting torments which await them. This they, doubtless, do for the selfish purposes of securing pelf and self aggrandizement. My object in coming is, not only that they may have life, bare existence; but also, that they have what is required to make that life supereminently happy, viz., “have it more abundantly,” or superabundantly, that is, have an abundance of heavenly gifts and graces, which stimulate men to perform acts of heroic merit; and, as a reward, an abundance of glory hereafter, in the kingdom of everlasting bliss, and at the final resurrection.

11. “I am the good shepherd.” “I,” unlike the mercenary Scribes and Pharisees, unlike the thieves who come like wolves, “am the good shepherd.” That good shepherd, promised by God in the law, revealed to Moses, foretold by the Prophets, destined to redeem and govern the people of God—and even in a literal view, it often happens that the shepherd exposes his life, like David (2 Kings 17).

“The good shepherd giveth his life for his sheep.” This, in its application, whatever may be said of the literal parable, is quite true, in reference to our Lord, who did so, and the pastors of His Church, who sacrifice their temporal life, as happens every day, in times of pestilence or persecution, for the spiritual life of their flocks.

12. Our Lord not only contrasts Himself, as above, with the thief, but also with another wicked class of pastors—the hirelings.

“The hireling,” the man who cares the flock for temporal gain and hire. In this verse is shown the character of the good shepherd, in contrast with the conduct of the hireling.

“Seeth the wolf coming.” By “the wolf,” is meant, whatever causes danger to himself and flock; it may be, it refers to bad men, soldiers, etc.; but, “the wolf” is put for all, as being the more common enemy of the flock.

“He leaves the sheep” to their fate, and takes safety himself in flight. The consequence is, that, so far as he is concerned, the wolf devours and scattereth the sheep.

13. “The hireling … because he is a hireling.” All the concern he feels is, for his wages. He feels no special interest in the welfare of his flock. In this, our Lord notes and censures the mercenary Scribes and Pharisees.

When, and in what circumstances, it may be permissible and lawful for a pastor to flee, in times of persecution (see Matthew 10:23, Commentary on).

14. Our Lord here shows that He possesses—and applies to Himself—the qualities appertaining to a good shepherd, viz., that He knows His sheep,” as in v. 3, “He calleth them by name, and they hear His voice.” Our Lord’s “knowledge” here is a knowledge, accompanied by practical benevolence, a knowledge of love and beneficence. “And His sheep know Him.” “And,” expresses the effect of this knowledge on His part; it is, that they in turn, know Him, they believe in Him; they hope in Him; they love Him. His love for them reciprocally begets love from them towards Him.

15. “As the Father knoweth Me,” etc. This is to be connected with the foregoing, as if He said: My love for My sheep and their love for Me, is like to—though infinitely inferior to and beneath—the infinite and boundless love and knowledge My Father has for Me, and I, for Him. This boundless love is the source and origin of the mutual love between My sheep and Me; because, the Divine and increated love is the source and origin of all created love. My Father wishes Me, His natural and Increated Son, to love His adopted children, who, in turn, faithfully repay My love. The knowledge and love are of the same kind; one, however, being infinite, the other, finite. There is a similarity; not an equality of love and knowledge in both cases.

“And I lay down My life for My sheep.” This is another quality already predicated of the Good Shepherd. These words are immediately connected with the words (v. 14), “I know Mine.” The intermediate words—“As the Father,” etc., being an expression of the quality of His knowledge and love for His sheep. “And I lay down My life.” I am prepared to lay down My life, and mean to do it shortly, “for My sheep.” This is a proof of His practical benevolent knowledge and love.

16. “And other sheep I have,” etc. He refers to the Gentile world, whom He meant to call into His Church, bestowing on them the priceless gift of faith (Isaias 49), “Ecce dedi te in lucem gentium,” etc. “Other,” than the Jewish people, whom He was sent to preach to first, and gather into His fold.

He uses the present, “I have,” and calls them His “sheep” by anticipation, as He foresaw their call, at no distant period, into the sheepfold of His Church, and their faithful correspondence with His grace, “and they shall hear My voice.”

“That are not of this fold.” Scattered abroad, like sheep without a fold, wherein safely to congregate.

“Them also I must bring,” into the fold, bestowing on them the light of faith, as I am constituted by My Father, the “light to enlighten the Gentiles.” This verse seems to be parenthetically introduced, and verse 15 to be immediately connected with verse 17.

“And they”—the two peoples, Jews and Gentiles—“shall be one fold.” All the sheep shall form one fold founded by Me, who am to be the “one” only chief “shepherd.” All other shepherds are dependent on and subordinate to Me (Gal. 3:28; Ezechiel 34:13–16).

17. “Therefore doth the Father love Me,” because out of love for Him, and in obedience to His command, “I lay down My life for Him,” of My own free will and accord; however, this I do, “that I may take it again.” “That,” is the same as, so that, expressive of a result or consequence. “I lay down My life,” in obedience to My Father’s command, for My flock, by paying the due ransom for the sins of My people, but in such a way, “that I may take it up again,” and perfect this act of ransom, by being gloriously resuscitated to bring about their justification. The cruel and ignominious death of the cross is sweet to Me; because, pleasing to My Father, who in reward for obedience and humiliation, has bestowed on Me glory and exaltation (Philip. 2:8–11).

18. “No man taketh it away from Me,” forcibly, against My will. “But I lay it down of Myself,” of My own free will and accord. The violence of the Jews would be of no avail against Him. The instruments of torture employed could not affect Him. He could, if He pleased, by the power of His Divinity, render His body, like the bodies of the glorified saints, impassible and proof against any impression. The power He had of crying out with a loud voice, on the point of expiring, could be exerted in saving Him from dying. Hence, the Centurion, on witnessing Him in dying, utter a loud voice, as well as witnessing the other phenomena, also, exclaimed, “Indeed, this was the Son of God” (Matthew 27:54).

“I have power to lay it down,” by a free and voluntary death—“and power to take it up again,” by a glorious Resurrection. He shows He was God and man. As man, He died; as God, He raised Himself up.

“This commandment have I received,” etc. Our Lord’s death, while it was His own free act, was undergone by Him, in fulfilment of the command of His Father.

19. “A dissension rose again,” as on several former occasions, for instance (c. 9:16), “for these words.” This may denote the words of the parable, which they understood not; or, His words, regarding His power of life and death.

20. “He hath a devil,” proudly imitating Lucifer in his claims and arrogant assumption. He is driven on by the demon who possesses Him. “He is mad.” “Why hear ye Him?” Why listen to a madman of His sort?

21. Others defend Him. They declare that the curing of a blind man and restoring his sight cannot be the work of the devil, but of God. Hence, this man who effected so great a cure (opening the eyes of a blind man), cannot in His speech be under the influence of any diabolical agency.

22. “Dedication,” literally, of the renewing or renovation. It, most likely, refers to the renewing and dedication of the Temple by Judas Machabeus, after it had been profaned and partly destroyed by Antiochus Epiphanes. (1 Machabees 4:52–59; 4 Machabeus 10:5–8). After purifying the Temple, Judas Machabeus decreed that this festival should be celebrated for eight days, in each succeeding year, which was done with great demonstrations of joy. It occurred in the month of Casleu, or, about the middle of our December.

23. “Walked.” As it was cold, wintry weather, He walked about publicly; prepared to give instruction, if required.

“In Solomon’s porch.” This was covered, adjoining the Temple to the East. It was called so, either because it was originally built by Solomon.—It was left undestroyed by the Chaldeans and preserved amidst the ruins of the Temple,—or, because it was built anew on the site of the porch built by Solomon on the eastern side of the hill (Josephus de Bello, c. v.).

24. “The Jews came round Him, and said to Him, how long dost thou hold our souls in suspense?” These men, very likely, pressed Him for an answer, out of feelings of malice, in order to elicit a plain answer from Him; and then either accuse Him to the Romans, as affecting sovereign power; or, stone Him for blasphemy. Hence, their insidious question.

“If Thou be the Christ, tell us plainly.” “The Christ,” the promised, expected, Messias. If we even admit that our Lord had not declared this directly, He did so equivalently, on several occasions, and by stupendous miracles, proved it.

25. Our Lord answers them, that He had already told them, at least equivalently (8:12–24) that He was the Christ, and they did not believe Him. They cast discredit on His testimony, as the testimony of one speaking in his own favour (8:13). He therefore, now refrains from answering them in words, knowing their malicious motives; He refers them to His stupendous works done in the name and by the authority of His Father. These works wrought in proof of His Divine mission are the strongest testimony He can give.

26. Taxing their obstinate malice, He accounts for their not believing in Him, although, besides His own assurance, they had such testimony of works. The reason was, that they were not of His flock, either at present, or at any future time.

27. He shows they are not of His sheep; because, destitute of the distinguishing qualities of such, the chief quality being to hear and obey His words, a thing they refuse to do. Hence, they are not of His sheep. Of them He shall, one day, say, instead of knowing them, “I know you not” (Matthew 7:23).

28. In order to stimulate them to become “His sheep,” His obedient followers, He points out the blessings in store for His followers. “I give them life everlasting,” so far as I am concerned, unless they wish to desert Me of their own free will, and refuse to co-operate with My grace. “I give them life everlasting.” I have in store for them hereafter life everlasting, of which My grace here is a sure earnest, “and no man shall pluck them out of My hand.” No power in existence, men or devils, can forcibly take them away from Me.

29. “That which My Father hath given Me,” viz., My Divine nature in My eternal generation, “is greater than all,” than any thing or power in existence, it being the Divinity itself.

“And no one can snatch them out of the hand of My Father.” Therefore, nor out of Mine, our power being the same.

The Greek reading is different. “My Father who gave to Me,” viz., My sheep—“is greater than all, and no one can snatch them out the hand of My Father.” Therefore, nor out of Mine, as our power is the same (v. 30). This reading is sustained by the external authority of Versions and MSS., and renders the reasoning clear and less involved. According to the Vulgate reading, the words of verse, 30, would be only a repetition, in clearer terms, of verse 29. However, the Vulgate reading makes good sense, and from a doctrinal point of view, conveys the same adorable truth regarding our Lord’s Divinity and Humanity.

Verses 29, 30, express the identity of the Father and of the Son and the Omnipotent power of both.

30. The meaning is: no one can snatch them out of the hand of My Father, nor, therefore, out of Mine, since, “the Father and I are one,” possessing the same Omnipotent power, the same identical Divine nature, the same Divine will. The reasoning here requires, that our Lord should speak of unity of power and nature. “One,” denotes unity of nature. “Are,” distinction of persons (St. Augustine, Oratio de Hæres). In answering, He declares more than they asked, viz., that He was not only the Messias, such as they fancied in their minds, but even God.

31, 32. This clearly shows, they understood our Lord to speak of Himself as God, consubstantial, equal in power, with God. Hence, their intention of stoning Him, stoning being the punishment marked out for blasphemers (Leviticus 24:14–16).

Our Lord does not remove nor correct this impression; but rather confirms it here, as it was correct, by an argument derived from His stupendous works proceeding from the Father. “Many good works I have shewed you from My Father,” from whom I derive My power of performing the works of the Divinity, along with my Divine nature. These works prove Him to be the Son of God, and this He means to say here. Hence, He here again confirms the impression of the Jews by re-affirming His consubstantiality with the Father, as demonstrated by His works.

33. “For a good work”—if ever you performed such—“we stone Thee not, but for blasphemy, in making Thyself God.” It is, then, clear, they understood our Lord’s meaning.

34. If our Lord had not meant to assert His identity in nature with the Father, He could easily have silenced them by saying, they misunderstood Him; that He did not mean what they understood Him to say. Far from it, He confirms their views, by an argumentum a minore ad majus, an argumentum, also, as it is called, ad hominem, showing their inconsistency in charging Him with blasphemy in the application of the term, “God,” to Himself.

“Written in your law.” The whole of the Sacred Scriptures in use among the Jews, as in 15:25. Sometimes the law denotes the Pentateuch (Luke 24:44).

“I said, you are gods.” These words are taken from Psalm (81:6), addressed to judges, whom God invests with His own legitimate power, and makes to share in His name, as His vicars and representatives. They are called “gods,” in administering justice.

35. “If He called them gods, to whom the Word of God was spoken,” addressing them as gods, “and the Scripture,” which records this, “cannot be broken,” be declared nugatory, or to have recorded an undue appellation, emanating from the mouth of God; in other words, cannot be charged with attributing improper language to God. They, therefore, are properly termed, gods.

36. “Whom the Father sanctified,” bestowing on Him, as God, His essential sanctity with the Divine nature in His Eternal generation; and sanctifying Him, as man, in the Hypostatic union; so as to fit Him for His mission in the world, “and sent into the world” as His Son, which the relation of Father clearly implies—a relation of the closest character—“sent” Him, to exercise an office far more exalted than that of judges, justly termed “gods.” Is it not very wrong of you, therefore, to say, “Thou blasphemest, because I said, I am the Son of God?”

It is clear, “the Father and I are one” (v. 30), and “I am the Son of God” (v. 36), are the same thing; since, it is verse 30, our Lord refers to, in this verse. Both, therefore, express His identity of nature with the Father.

Our Lord here uses an argumentum a minore ad majus. If men can legitimately be termed gods in the exercise of judicial power, simply because God called them such, with how much more reason can He call Himself, without blasphemy, “the Son of God,” whom God, the Father, implying the relation of Son, sent, as His Son, into the world. He thus, fully refutes their charge, prescinding from the more exalted sense in which He calls Himself the Son of God, which is not expressed in this verse. But, in verses 30–36, is clearly expressed His meaning. In these verses He, in the most explicit terms, calls Himself “the Son of God,” consubstantial, and equal in all things, as well in power, as in all other Divine attributes. “Sanctified,” may signify, destined, set apart for the office of Saviour, and “sent into the world” for that purpose. In this sense, the word is used (Jer. 1:5), Antequam exires de vulva, SANCTIFICAVI te,” destined you to be a Prophet, “et Prophetam in gentibus,” etc.

37. Our Lord once more confirms their conviction, that He meant to call Himself the Son of God, by referring to the works which proved that He possessed the same power and Divine nature with the Father, “the works of My Father,” works peculiar to My Father. Hence, as the works are common to both, they must both be the same in nature, power, and operation.

38. If you do not believe Me on my own assertions, believe Me on account of My works, which can proceed from no other than My Father. These prove the truth of My words and assertions.

“That you may know and believe.” That you may know My works to be Divine, and knowing them to be such, you may “believe that the Father is in Me,” performing His Divine works, by His Divine nature, “and I in Him,” by My Divine nature, by the same Deity and Omnipotence. This refers to circuminsession. The works of our Lord prove His declaration, that “He is the Son of God,” to be true.

Verse, 30, declares the consubstantiality of our Lord with His Father. Verse, 36, His Divine filiation. Verse, 37, His circuminsession. It is clear from verse 39, that the Jews understood Him in these two last verses to refer to His Divinity. Hence, their efforts to apprehend and punish Him, as a blasphemer.

39. “They sought to take Him,” on account of His again repeating His equality with God. “He escaped,” etc., rendering Himself invisible by His omnipotent power.

40. In order to appease the rage of His enemies, He crossed the Jordan into Perea, “into that place where John was baptizing first.” This was Bethany or Bethabara (1:28). Here it is, our Lord was baptized, and testimony borne to Him, by John, of which, the place and surroundings would remind the crowds that followed Him.

“And abode there,” until, towards the approach of the Pasch and His Passion, He went into Judea and raised Lazarus from the dead.

41. “Many resorted to Him.” They were reminded of what formerly occurred there by the place itself. Likely, these occurrences were fresh in their memory. Hence, they said, “John indeed did no sign,” and we believed in Him, even fancied Him to be the promised Messiah; with how much greater reason ought we have believed in this man, who has performed so many miracles, in proof of His assertion, that He is the Son of God.

42. Again, we have further proof of this in the testimony of John regarding Him. “And all things whatsoever John said of Him were true,” and confirmed by events. Hence, influenced by these motives of credibility, we should have received Him, as the true Messiah and Son of God. “And many believed in Him.”








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