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A HISTORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE
IN THE TIME OF JESUS CHRIST:
TWO DIVISIONS IN FIVE VOLUMES

EMIL SCHÜRER D.D. M.A.

Being a Second and Revised Edition of a “Manual of the History of New Testament Times”

D1 V1 & V2: TRANSLATED BY REV. JOHN MACPHERSON, M.A.

D2 V1, 2, 3: TRANSLATED BY SOPHIA TAYLOR AND REV. PETER CHRISTIE

A HISTORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE IN THE TIME OF JESUS CHRIST from the edition originally published by T. & T. Clark: Edinburgh, 1890

Being a Second and Revised Edition of a “Manual of the History of New Testament Times”

Gratefully Dedicated TO ALBRECHT RITSCHL, D.D. AND CARL VON WEIZSÄCKER, D.D.

CONTENTS

Title Page: A HISTORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE IN THE TIME OF JESUS CHRIST: TWO DIVISIONS IN FIVE VOLUMES

FIRST DIVISION POLITICAL HISTORY OF PALESTINE, FROM B.C. 175 TO A.D. 135 VOLUME I

INTRODUCTION

§ 1. SCOPE AND LITERATURE

LITERATURE

§ 2. AUXILIARY SCIENCES

A.—JEWISH ARCHAEOLOGY

B.—GEOGRAPHY

C.—CHRONOLOGY

D.—NUMISMATICS

E.—INSCRIPTIONS

§ 3. THE SOURCES

A.—THE TWO BOOKS OF MACCABEES

B.—NON-EXTANT SOURCES

C.—JOSEPHUS

EDITIONS AND LITERATURE

D.—GREEK AND ROMAN WRITERS

E.—THE RABBINICAL LITERATURE

EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS OF THE MISHNA

EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS OF THE PALESTINIAN TALMUD

EDITIONS AND TRANSLATIONS OF THE BABYLONIAN TALMUD

FOR CRITICISM OF THE TEXT

HELPS IN REGARD TO THE LANGUAGE

GENERAL LITERATURE ON THE MISHNA

ON THE PALESTINIAN TALMUD

ON THE TWO TALMUDS GENERALLY

ON THE TARGUMS GENERALLY

ON ONKELOS

ON JONATHAN ON THE PROPHETS

ON JONATHAN AND JERUSALMI ON THE PENTATEUCH

FIRST DIVISION POLITICAL HISTORY OF PALESTINE FROM B.C. 175 TO A.D. 135

FIRST PERIOD

FROM ANTIOCHUS EPIPHANES DOWN TO THE CONQUEST OF JERUSALEM BY POMPEY

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SECOND PERIOD

FROM THE CONQUEST OF JERUSALEM BY POMPEY TO THE WAR OF HADRIAN

SOURCES

LITERATURE

§ 13. HYRCANUS II, B.C. 63–40. REBELLION OF ANTIPATER AND HIS SONS PHASAEL AND HEROD

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

I

II

III

FIRST DIVISION POLITICAL HISTORY OF PALESTINE, FROM B.C. 175 TO A.D. 135 VOLUME II

SOURCES

LITERATURE

§ 17. THE SONS OF HEROD

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

LITERATURE

I. DEFENDING THE GENUINENESS

II. MAINTAINING THE THEORY OF INTERPOLATION

III. AGAINST THE GENUINENESS

SOURCES

LITERATURE

I

II

SOURCES

LITERATURE

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

§ 21. FROM THE DESTRUCTION OF JERUSALEM TO THE OVERTHROW OF BAR-COCHBA

1. THE STATE OF AFFAIRS IN PALESTINE FROM VESPASIAN TO HADRIAN

SOURCES

LITERATURE

SOURCES

LITERATURE

APPENDICES I–VIII

APPENDIX I

HISTORY OF CHALCIS, ITUREA, AND ABILENE

LITERATURE

APPENDIX II

HISTORY OF THE NABATEAN KINGS

LITERATURE

APPENDIX III

THE JEWISH AND MACEDONIAN MONTHS COMPARED WITH THE JULIAN CALENDAR

APPENDIX IV

THE JEWISH SHEKEL AND COINS OF THE REBELLION

1. THE SHEKEL

LITERATURE

2. THE COINS OF THE REBELLION

LITERATURE

APPENDIX V

PARALLEL YEARS OF THE GREEK, SYRIAN, ROMAN, AND CHRISTIAN ERAS

APPENDIX VI

GENEALOGY OF THE SELEUCIDAE

APPENDIX VII

GENEALOGY OF THE ASMONEANS

APPENDIX VIII

ADDENDA TO DIVISION I, VOLS. I AND II

VOLUME I

PAGE

VOLUME II

SECOND DIVISION THE INTERNAL CONDITION OF PALESTINE, AND OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE, IN THE TIME OF JESUS CHRIST VOLUME I

PREFACE

E. SCHÜRER

CONTENTS OF DIVISION II, VOL. I

I. MIXTURE OF POPULATION, LANGUAGE

II. DIFFUSION OF HELLENIC CULTURE

§ 23. CONSTITUTION. SANHEDRIM. HIGH PRIEST

I. THE HELLENISTIC TOWNS

THE LITERATURE

II. THE STRICTLY JEWISH TERRITORY

THE LITERATURE

III. THE SUPREME SANHEDRIM IN JERUSALEM

THE LITERATURE

IV. THE HIGH PRIESTS

THE LITERATURE

§ 24. THE PRIESTHOOD AND THE TEMPLE WORSHIP

THE LITERATURE

I. THE PRIESTHOOD AS A DISTINCT ORDER

II. THE EMOLUMENTS

III. THE VARIOUS FUNCTIONS OF THE PRIESTHOOD

IV. THE DAILY SERVICE

APPENDIX

PARTICIPATION OF GENTILES IN THE WORSHIP AT JERUSALEM

§ 25. SCRIBISM

I. CANONICAL DIGNITY OF HOLY SCRIPTURE

II. THE SCRIBES AND THEIR LABOURS IN GENERAL

THE LITERATURE

III. HALACHAH AND HAGGADAH

THE LITERATURE

IV. THE MOST FAMOUS SCRIBES

THE LITERATURE

SECOND DIVISION THE INTERNAL CONDITION OF PALESTINE, AND OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE, IN THE TIME OF JESUS CHRIST VOLUME II

§ 26. PHARISEES AND SADDUCEES

THE LITERATURE

I. THE PHARISEES

II. THE SADDUCEES

§ 27. SCHOOL AND SYNAGOGUE

I. THE SCHOOL

THE LITERATURE

II. THE SYNAGOGUE

THE LITERATURE

APPENDIX

§ 28. LIFE UNDER THE LAW

I

II

III

IV

V

§ 29. THE MESSIANIC HOPE

THE LITERATURE

I. RELATION TO THE OLDER MESSIANIC HOPE

II. HISTORICAL SURVEY

III. SYSTEMATIC STATEMENT

§ 30. THE ESSENES

THE LITERATURE

I. THE FACTS

II. NATURE AND ORIGIN OF ESSENISM

§ 31. JUDAISM IN THE DISPERSION. PROSELYTES

THE LITERATURE

I. EXTENSION

II. CONSTITUTION OF THE JEWISH COMMUNITIES

SECOND DIVISION THE INTERNAL CONDITION OF PALESTINE AND OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE IN THE TIME OF JESUS CHRIST VOLUME III

§ 32. THE PALESTINIAN JEWISH LITERATURE

I. HISTORIOGRAPHY

II. THE PSALMODIC LITERATURE

III. THE GNOMIC WISDOM

IV. HORTATORY NARRATIVE

V. PSEUDEPIGRAPHIC PROPHECIES

VI. THE SACRED LEGENDS

VII. BOOKS OF MAGIC AND MAGICAL SPELLS

§ 33. THE GRAECO-JEWISH LITERATURE

I. TRANSLATIONS OF THE HOLY SCRIPTURES

II. REVISION AND COMPLETION OF SCRIPTURE LITERATURE

III. HISTORICAL LITERATURE

IV. EPIC POETRY AND THE DRAMA

V. PHILOSOPHY

VI. APOLOGETICS

VII. JEWISH PROPAGANDA UNDER A HEATHEN MASK

§ 34. PHILO THE JEWISH PHILOSOPHER

I. THE LIFE AND WRITINGS OF PHILO

THE LITERATURE

II. THE DOCTRINE OF PHILO

THE LITERATURE

INDEX TO DIVISION II

INDEX

PREFATORY NOTE

A HISTORY OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE

C—GREEK WORDS

D—NAMES AND SUBJECTS

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

J

K

L

M

N

O

P

Q

R

S

T

U

V

W

X

Z

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO DIVISION II

VOLUME I

PAGE

VOLUME II

PAGE

VOLUME III

PAGE








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