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Fathers Of The Church
Catholic Edition

St. Augustine: Anti-Pelagian Writings

ST. AUGUSTINE: ANTI-PELAGIAN WRITINGS

NICENE AND POST-NICENE CHURCH FATHERS: SERIES 1: VOLUME V. ST. AUGUSTIN: ANTI-PELAGIAN WRITINGS.

A SELECT LIBRARY OF THE NICENE AND POST-NICENE FATHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.




SAINT AUGUSTIN’S ANTI-PELAGIAN WORKS

A Treatise On The Merits And Forgiveness Of Sins, And On The Baptism Of Infants

A Treatise On The Spirit And The Letter

A Treatise On Nature And Grace

A Treatise Concerning Man’s Perfection In Righteousness

A Work On The Proceedings Of Pelagius

A Treatise On The Grace Of Christ, And On Original Sin

On Marriage And Concupiscence

A Treatise On The Soul And Its Origin

A Treatise Against Two Letters Of The Pelagians

A Treatise On Grace And Free Will

A Treatise On Rebuke And Grace

A Treatise On The Predestination Of The Saints

A Treatise On The Gift Of Perseverance






SAINT AUGUSTIN’S ANTI-PELAGIAN WORKS

A Treatise On The Merits And Forgiveness Of Sins, And On The Baptism Of Infants

Book I

Chapter 1 [I.]
Introductory, in the Shape of an Inscription to His Friend Marcellinus

Chapter 2 [II.]
If Adam Had Not Sinned, He Would Never Have Died

Chapter 3 [III.]
It is One Thing to Be Mortal, Another Thing to Be Subject to Death

Chapter 4 [IV.]
Even Bodily Death is from Sin

Chapter 5 [V.]
The Words, Mortale (Capable of Dying), Mortuum (Dead), and Moriturus (Destined to Die)

Chapter 6 [VI.]
How It is that the Body Dead Because of Sin

Chapter 7 [VII.]
The Life of the Body the Object of Hope, the Life of the Spirit Being a Prelude to It

Chapter 8 [VIII.]
Bodily Death from Adam’s Sin

Chapter 9 [IX.]
Sin Passes on to All Men by Natural Descent, and Not Merely by Imitation

Chapter 10
The Analogy of Grace

Chapter 11 [X.]
Distinction Between Actual and Original Sin

Chapter 12
The Law Could Not Take Away Sin

Chapter 13 [XI.]
Meaning of the Apostle’s Phrase “The Reign of Death.”

Chapter 14
Superabundance of Grace

Chapter 15 [XII.]
The One Sin Common to All Men

Chapter 16 [XIII.]
How Death is by One and Life by One

Chapter 17
Whom Sinners Imitate

Chapter 18
Only Christ Justifies

Chapter 19 [XV.]
Sin is from Natural Descent, as Righteousness is from Regeneration; How “All” Are Sinners Through Adam, and “All” Are Just Through Christ

Chapter 20
Original Sin Alone is Contracted by Natural Birth

Chapter 21 [XVI.]
Unbaptized Infants Damned, But Most Lightly; The Penalty of Adam’s Sin, the Grace of His Body Lost

Chapter 22 [XVII.]
To Infants Personal Sin is Not to Be Attributed

Chapter 23 [XVIII.]
He Refutes Those Who Allege that Infants are Baptized Not for the Remission of Sins, But for the Obtaining of the Kingdom of Heaven

Chapter 24 [XIX.]
Infants Saved as Sinners

Chapter 25
Infants are Described as Believers and as Penitents. Sins Alone Separate Between God and Men

Chapter 26 [XX.]
No One, Except He Be Baptized, Rightly Comes to the Table of the Lord

Chapter 27
Infants Must Feed on Christ

Chapter 28
Baptized Infants, of the Faithful; Unbaptized, of the Lost

Chapter 29 [XXI.]
It is an Inscrutable Mystery Why Some are Saved, and Others Not

Chapter 30
Why One is Baptized and Another Not, Not Otherwise Inscrutable

Chapter 31 [XXII.]
He Refutes Those Who Suppose that Souls, on Account of Sins Committed in Another State, are Thrust into Bodies Suited to Their Merits, in Which They are More or Less Tormented

Chapter 32
The Case of Certain Idiots and Simpletons

Chapter 33
Christ is the Saviour and Redeemer Even of Infants

Chapter 34 [XXIV.]
Baptism is Called Salvation, and the Eucharist, Life, by the Christians of Carthage

Chapter 35
Unless Infants are Baptized, They Remain in Darkness

Chapter 36
Infants Not Enlightened as Soon as They are Born

Chapter 37
How God Enlightens Every Person

Chapter 38
What “Lighteth” Means

Chapter 39 [XXVI.]
The Conclusion Drawn, that All are Involved in Original Sin

Chapter 40 [XXVII.]
A Collection of Scripture Testimonies. From the Gospels

Chapter 41
From the First Epistle of Peter

Chapter 42
From the First Epistle of John

Chapter 43
From the Epistle to the Romans

Chapter 44
From the Epistles to the Corinthians

Chapter 45
From the Epistle to the Galatians

Chapter 46
From the Epistle to the Ephesians

Chapter 47
From the Epistle to the Colossians

Chapter 48
From the Epistles to Timothy

Chapter 49
From the Epistle to Titus

Chapter 50
From the Epistle to the Hebrews

Chapter 51
From the Apocalypse

Chapter 52
From the Acts of the Apostles

Chapter 53
The Utility of the Books of the Old Testament

Chapter 54
By the Sacrifices of the Old Testament, Men Were Convinced of Sins and Led to the Saviour

Chapter 55 [XXVIII.]
He Concludes that All Men Need the Death of Christ, that They May Be Saved. Unbaptized Infants Will Be Involved in the Condemnation of the Devil. How All Men Through Adam are Unto Condemnation; And Through Christ Unto Justification. No One is Reconciled with God, Except Through Christ

Chapter 56
No One is Reconciled to God Except Through Christ

Chapter 57 [XXIX.]
The Good of Marriage; Four Different Cases of the Good and the Evil Use of Matrimony

Chapter 58 [XXX.]
In What Respect the Pelagians Regarded Baptism as Necessary for Infants

Chapter 59
The Context of Their Chief Text

Chapter 60 [XXXI.]
Christ, the Head and the Body; Owing to the Union of the Natures in the Person of Christ, He Both Remained in Heaven, and Walked About on Earth; How the One Christ Could Ascend to Heaven; The Head, and the Body, the One Christ

Chapter 61 [XXXII.]
The Serpent Lifted Up in the Wilderness Prefigured Christ Suspended on the Cross; Even Infants Themselves Poisoned by the Serpent’s Bite

Chapter 62 [XXXIII.]
No One Can Be Reconciled to God, Except by Christ

Chapter 63 [XXXIV.]
The Form, or Rite, of Baptism. Exorcism

Chapter 64
A Twofold Mistake Respecting Infants

Chapter 65 [XXXV.]
In Infants There is No Sin of Their Own Commission

Chapter 66
Infants’ Faults Spring from Their Sheer Ignorance

Chapter 67 [XXXVI.]
On the Ignorance of Infants, and Whence It Arises

Chapter 68 [XXXVII.]
If Adam Was Not Created of Such a Character as that in Which We are Born, How is It that Christ, Although Free from Sin, Was Born an Infant and in Weakness?

Chapter 69 [XXXVIII.]
The Ignorance and the Infirmity of an Infant

Chapter 70 [XXXIX.]
How Far Sin is Done Away in Infants by Baptism, Also in Adults, and What Advantage Results Therefrom

Book II

Chapter 1 [I.]
What Has Thus Far Been Dwelt On; And What is to Be Treated in This Book

Chapter 2 [II.]
Some Persons Attribute Too Much to the Freedom of Man’s Will; Ignorance and Infirmity

Chapter 3 [III.]
In What Way God Commands Nothing Impossible. Works of Mercy, Means of Wiping Out Sins

Chapter 4 [IV.]
Concupiscence, How Far in Us; The Baptized are Not Injured by Concupiscence, But Only by Consent Therewith

Chapter 5 [V.]
The Will of Man Requires the Help of God

Chapter 6
Wherein the Pharisee Sinned When He Thanked God; To God’s Grace Must Be Added the Exertion of Our Own Will

Chapter 7 [VI.]
Four Questions on the Perfection of Righteousness: (1.) Whether a Man Can Be Without Sin in This Life

Chapter 8 [VII.]
(2) Whether There is in This World a Man Without Sin

Chapter 9
The Beginning of Renewal; Resurrection Called Regeneration; They are the Sons of God Who Lead Lives Suitable to Newness of Life

Chapter 10 [VIII.]
Perfection, When to Be Realized

Chapter 11 [IX.]
An Objection of the Pelagians: Why Does Not a Righteous Man Beget a Righteous Man?

Chapter 12 [X.]
He Reconciles Some Passages of Scripture

Chapter 13
A Subterfuge of the Pelagians

Chapter 14
Job Was Not Without Sin

Chapter 15
Carnal Generation Condemned on Account of Original Sin

Chapter 16
Job Foresaw that Christ Would Come to Suffer; The Way of Humility in Those that are Perfect

Chapter 17 [XII.]
No One Righteous in All Things

Chapter 18 [XIII.]
Perfect Human Righteousness is Imperfect

Chapter 19
Zacharias and Elisabeth, Sinners

Chapter 20
Paul Worthy to Be the Prince of the Apostles, and Yet a Sinner

Chapter 21 [XIV.]
All Righteous Men Sinners

Chapter 22 [XV.]
An Objection of the Pelagians; Perfection is Relative; He is Rightly Said to Be Perfect in Righteousness Who Has Made Much Progress Therein

Chapter 23 [XXI.]
Why God Prescribes What He Knows Cannot Be Observed

Chapter 24
An Objection of the Pelagians. The Apostle Paul Was Not Free From Sin So Long as He Lived

Chapter 25
God Punishes Both in Wrath and in Mercy

Chapter 26 [XVII.]
(3) Why No One in This Life is Without Sin

Chapter 27
The Divine Remedy for Pride

Chapter 28 [XVIII.]
A Good Will Comes from God

Chapter 29
A Subterfuge of the Pelagians

Chapter 30
All Will is Either Good, and Then It Loves Righteousness, or Evil, When It Does Not Love Righteousness

Chapter 31
Grace is Given to Some Men in Mercy; Is Withheld from Others in Justice and Truth

Chapter 32
God’s Sovereignity in His Grace

Chapter 33
Through Grace We Have Both the Knowledge of Good, and the Delight Which It Affords

Chapter 34 [XX.]
(4) That No Man, with the Exception of Christ, Has Ever Lived, or Can Live Without Sin

Chapter 35 [XXI.]
Adam and Eve; Obedience Most Strongly Enjoined by God on Man

Chapter 36 [XXII.]
Man’s State Before the Fall

Chapter 37 [XXIII.]
The Corruption of Nature is by Sin, Its Renovation is by Christ

Chapter 38 [XXIV.]
What Benefit Has Been Conferred on Us by the Incarnation of the Word; Christ’s Birth in the Flesh, Wherein It is Like and Wherein Unlike Our Own Birth

Chapter 39 [XXV.]
An Objection of Pelagians

Chapter 40
An Argument Anticipated

Chapter 41
Children of Believers are Called “Clean” By the Apostle

Chapter 42
Sanctification Manifold; Sacrament of Catechumens

Chapter 43 [XXVII.]
Why the Children of the Baptized Should Be Baptized

Chapter 44
An Objection of the Pelagians

Chapter 45 [XXVIII.]
The Law of Sin is Called Sin; How Concupiscence Still Remains After Its Evil Has Been Removed in the Baptized

Chapter 46
Guilt May Be Taken Away But Concupiscence Remain

Chapter 47 [XXIX.]
All the Predestinated are Saved Through the One Mediator Christ, and by One and the Same Faith

Chapter 48
Christ the Saviour Even of Infants; Christ, When an Infant, Was Free from Ignorance and Mental Weakness

Chapter 49 [XXX.]
An Objection of the Pelagians

Chapter 50 [XXXI.]
Why It is that Death Itself is Not Abolished, Along with Sin, by Baptism

Chapter 51
Why the Devil is Said to Hold the Power and Dominion of Death

Chapter 52 [XXXII.]
Why Christ, After His Resurrection, Withdrew His Presence from the World

Chapter 53 [XXXIII.]
An Objection of the Pelagians

Chapter 54 [XXXIV.]
Why Punishment is Still Inflicted, After Sin Has Been Forgiven

Chapter 55
To Recover the Righteousness Which Had Been Lost by Sin, Man Has to Struggle, with Abundant Labour and Sorrow

Chapter 56
The Case of David, in Illustration

Chapter 57 [XXXV.]
Turn to Neither Hand

Chapter 58 [XXXVI.]
”Likeness of Sinful Flesh” Implies the Reality

Chapter 59
Whether the Soul is Propagated; On Obscure Points, Concerning Which the Scriptures Give Us No Assistance, We Must Be on Our Guard Against Forming Hasty Judgments and Opinions; The Scriptures are Clear Enough on Those Subjects Which are Necessary to Salvation

Book III

Chapter 1 [I.]
Pelagius Esteemed a Holy Man; His Expositions on Saint Paul

Chapter 2 [II.]
Pelagius’ Objection; Infants Reckoned Among the Number of Believers and the Faithful

Chapter 3
Pelagius Makes God Unjust

Chapter 4

Chapter 5 [III.]
Pelagius Praised by Some; Arguments Against Original Sin Proposed by Pelagius in His Commentary

Chapter 6
Why Pelagius Does Not Speak in His Own Person

Chapter 7 [IV.]
Proof of Original Sin in Infants

Chapter 8
Jesus is the Saviour Even of Infants

Chapter 9
The Ambiguity of “Adam is the Figure of Him to Come.”

Chapter 10 [V.]
He Shows that Cyprian Had Not Doubted the Original Sin of Infants

Chapter 11
The Ancients Assumed Original Sin

Chapter 12 [VI.]
The Universal Consensus Respecting Original Sin

Chapter 13 [VII.]
The Error of Jovinianus Did Not Extend So Far

Chapter 14
The Opinions of All Controversialists Whatever are Not, However, Canonical Authority; Original Sin, How Another’s; We Were All One Man in Adam

Chapter 15 [VIII.]
We All Sinned Adam’s Sin

Chapter 16
Origin of Errors; A Simile Sought from the Foreskin of the Circumcised, and from the Chaff of Wheat

Chapter 17 [IX.]
Christians Do Not Always Beget Christian, Nor the Pure, Pure Children

Chapter 18 [X.]
Is the Soul Derived by Natural Propagation?

Chapter 19 [XI.]
Sin and Death in Adam, Righteousness and Life in Christ

Chapter 20
The Sting of Death, What?

Chapter 21 [XII.]
The Precept About Touching the Menstruous Woman Not to Be Figuratively Understood; The Necessity of the Sacraments

Chapter 22 [XIII.]
We Ought to Be Anxious to Secure the Baptism of Infants

Chapter 23
Epilogue

A Treatise On The Spirit And The Letter

Chapter 1 [I.]
The Occasion of Writing This Work; A Thing May Be Capable of Being Done, and Yet May Never Be Done

Chapter 2 [II.]
The Examples Apposite

Chapter 3
Theirs is Comparatively a Harmless Error, Who Say that a Man Lives Here Without Sin

Chapter 4
Theirs is a Much More Serious Error, Requiring a Very Vigorous Refutation, Who Deny God’s Grace to Be Necessary

Chapter 5 [III.]
True Grace is the Gift of the Holy Ghost, Which Kindles in the Soul the Joy and Love of Goodness

Chapter 6 [IV.]
The Teaching of Law Without the Life-Giving Spirit is “The Letter that Killeth.”

Chapter 7 [V.]
What is Proposed to Be Here Treated

Chapter 8
Romans Interprets Corinthians

Chapter 9 [VI]
Through the Law Sin Has Abounded

Chapter 10
Christ the True Healer

Chapter 11 [VII.]
From What Fountain Good Works Flow

Chapter 12
Paul, Whence So Called; Bravely Contends for Grace

Chapter 13 [VIII.]
Keeping the Law; The Jews’ Glorying; The Fear of Punishment; The Circumcision of the Heart

Chapter 14
In What Respect the Pelagians Acknowledge God as the Author of Our Justification

Chapter 15 [IX.]
The Righteousness of God Manifested by the Law and the Prophets

Chapter 16 [X.]
How the Law Was Not Made for a Righteous Man

Chapter 17
The Exclusion of Boasting

Chapter 18 [XI.]
Piety is Wisdom; That is Called the Righteousness of God, Which He Produces

Chapter 19 [XII]
The Knowledge of God Through the Creation

Chapter 20
The Law Without Grace

Chapter 21 [XIII.]
The Law of Works and the Law of Faith

Chapter 22
No Man Justified by Works

Chapter 23 [XIV.]
How the Decalogue Kills, If Grace Be Not Present

Chapter 24
The Passage in Corinthians

Chapter 25
The Passage in Romans

Chapter 26
No Fruit Good Except It Grow from the Root of Love

Chapter 27 [XV.]
Grace, Concealed in the Old Testament, is Revealed in the New

Chapter 28 [XVI]
Why the Holy Ghost is Called the Finger of God

Chapter 29 [XVII.]
A Comparison of the Law of Moses and of the New Law

Chapter 30
The New Law Written Within

Chapter 31 [XVIII.]
The Old Law Ministers Death; The New, Righteousness

Chapter 32 [XIX.]
The Christian Faith Touching the Assistance of Grace

Chapter 33
The Prophecy of Jeremiah Concerning the New Testament

Chapter 34
The Law; Grace

Chapter 35 [XX.]
The Old Law; The New Law

Chapter 36 [XXI.]
The Law Written in Our Hearts

Chapter 37 [XXII.]
The Eternal Reward

Chapter 38 [XXIII.]
The Re-Formation Which is Now Being Effected, Compared with the Perfection of the Life to Come

Chapter 39 [XXIV]
The Eternal Reward Which is Specially Declared in the New Testament, Foretold by the Prophet

Chapter 40
How that is to Be the Reward of All; The Apostle Earnestly Defends Grace

Chapter 41
The Law Written in the Heart, and the Reward of the Eternal Contemplation of God, Belong to the New Covenant; Who Among the Saints are the Least and the Greatest

Chapter 42 [XXV.]
Difference Between the Old and the New Testaments

Chapter 43 [XXVI.]
A Question Touching the Passage in the Apostle About the Gentiles Who are Said to Do by Nature the Law’s Commands, Which They are Also Said to Have Written on Their Hearts

Chapter 44
The Answer Is, that the Passage Must Be Understood of the Faithful of the New Covenant

Chapter 45
It is Not by Their Works, But by Grace, that the Doers of the Law are Justified; God’s Saints and God’s Name Hallowed in Different Senses

Chapter 46
How the Passage of the Law Agrees with that of the Prophet

Chapter 47 [XXVII.]
The Law “Being Done by Nature” Means, Done by Nature as Restored by Grace

Chapter 48
The Image of God is Not Wholly Blotted Out in These Unbelievers; Venial Sins

Chapter 49
The Grace Promised by the Prophet for the New Covenant

Chapter 50 [XXIX.]
Righteousness is the Gift of God

Chapter 51
Faith the Ground of All Righteousness

Chapter 52 [XXX.]
Grace Establishes Free Will

Chapter 53 [XXXI.]
Volition and Ability

Chapter 54
Whether Faith Be in a Man’s Own Power

Chapter 55 [XXXII.]
What Faith is Laudable

Chapter 56
The Faith of Those Who are Under the Law Different from the Faith of Others

Chapter 57 [XXXIII.]
Whence Comes the Will to Believe?

Chapter 58
The Free Will of Man is an Intermediate Power

Chapter 59
Mercy and Pity in the Judgment of God

Chapter 60 [XXXIV.]
The Will to Believe is from God

Chapter 61 [XXXV.]
Conclusion of the Work

Chapter 62
He Returns to the Question Which Marcellinus Had Proposed to Him

Chapter 63
An Objection

Chapter 64 [XXXVI.]
When the Commandment to Love is Fulfilled

Chapter 65
In What Sense a Sinless Righteousness in This Life Can Be Asserted

Chapter 66
Although Perfect Righteousness Be Not Found Here on Earth, It is Still Not Impossible

A Treatise On Nature And Grace

Chapter 1 [I.]
The Occasion of Publishing This Work; What God’s Righteousness is

Chapter 2 [II.]
Faith in Christ Not Necessary to Salvation, If a Man Without It Can Lead a Righteous Life

Chapter 3 [III.]
Nature Was Created Sound and Whole; It Was Afterwards Corrupted by Sin

Chapter 4 [IV.]
Free Grace

Chapter 5 [V.]
It Was a Matter of Justice that All Should Be Condemned

Chapter 6 [VI.]
The Pelagians Have Very Strong and Active Minds

Chapter 7 [VII.]
He Proceeds to Confute the Work of Pelagius; He Refrains as Yet from Mentioning Pelagius’ Name

Chapter 8
A Distinction Drawn by Pelagius Between the Possible and Actual

Chapter 9 [VIII.]
Even They Who Were Not Able to Be Justified are Condemned

Chapter 10 [IX.]
He Could Not Be Justified, Who Had Not Heard of the Name of Christ; Rendering the Cross of Christ of None Effect

Chapter 11 [X.]
Grace Subtly Acknowledged by Pelagius

Chapter 12 [XI.]
In Our Discussions About Grace, We Do Not Speak of that Which Relates to the Constitution of Our Nature, But to Its Restoration

Chapter 13 [XII.]
The Scope and Purpose of the Law’s Threatenings; “Perfect Wayfarers.”

Chapter 14 [XIII.]
Refutation of Pelagius

Chapter 15 [XIV.]
Not Everything [of Doctrinal Truth] is Written in Scripture in So Many Words

Chapter 16 [XV.]
Pelagius Corrupts a Passage of the Apostle James by Adding a Note of Interrogation

Chapter 17 [XVI.]
Explanation of This Text Continued

Chapter 18 [XVII.]
Who May Be Said to Be in the Flesh

Chapter 19
Sins of Ignorance; To Whom Wisdom is Given by God on Their Requesting It

Chapter 20 [XVIII.]
What Prayer Pelagius Would Admit to Be Necessary

Chapter 21 [XIX.]
Pelagius Denies that Human Nature Has Been Depraved or Corrupted by Sin

Chapter 22 [XX.]
How Our Nature Could Be Vitiated by Sin, Even Though It Be Not a Substance

Chapter 23 [XXI.]
Adam Delivered by the Mercy of Christ

Chapter 24 [XXII.]
Sin and the Penalty of Sin the Same

Chapter 25 [XXIII.]
God Forsakes Only Those Who Deserve to Be Forsaken. We are Sufficient of Ourselves to Commit Sin; But Not to Return to the Way of Righteousness. Death is the Punishment, Not the Cause of Sin

Chapter 26 [XXIV.]
Christ Died of His Own Power and Choice

Chapter 27
Even Evils, Through God’s Mercy, are of Use

Chapter 28 [XXV.]
The Disposition of Nearly All Who Go Astray. With Some Heretics Our Business Ought Not to Be Disputation, But Prayer

Chapter 29 [XXVI.]
A Simile to Show that God’s Grace is Necessary for Doing Any Good Work Whatever. God Never Forsakes the Justified Man If He Be Not Himself Forsaken

Chapter 30 [XXVII.]
Sin is Removed by Sin

Chapter 31
The Order and Process of Healing Our Heavenly Physician Does Not Adopt from the Sick Patient, But Derives from Himself. What Cause the Righteous Have for Fearing

Chapter 32 [XXVIII.]
God Forsakes Us to Some Extent that We May Not Grow Proud

Chapter 33 [XXIX.]
Not Every Sin is Pride. How Pride is the Commencement of Every Sin

Chapter 34 [XXX.]
A Man’s Sin is His Own, But He Needs Grace for His Cure

Chapter 35 [XXXI.]
Why God Does Not Immediately Cure Pride Itself. The Secret and Insidious Growth of Pride. Preventing and Subsequent Grace

Chapter 36 [XXXII.]
Pride Even in Such Things as are Done Aright Must Be Avoided. Free Will is Not Taken Away When Grace is Preached

Chapter 37 [XXXIII.]
Being Wholly Without Sin Does Not Put Man on an Equality with God

Chapter 38 [XXXIV.]
We Must Not Lie, Even for the Sake of Moderation. The Praise of Humility Must Not Be Placed to the Account of Falsehood

Chapter 39
Pelagius Glorifies God as Creator at the Expense of God as Saviour

Chapter 40 [XXXV.]
Why There is a Record in Scripture of Certain Men’s Sins, Recklessness in Sin Accounts It to Be So Much Loss Whenever It Falls Short in Gratifying Lust

Chapter 41
Whether Holy Men Have Died Without Sin

Chapter 42 [XXXVI.]
The Blessed Virgin Mary May Have Lived Without Sin. None of the Saints Besides Her Without Sin

Chapter 43 [XXXVII.]
Why Scripture Has Not Mentioned the Sins of All

Chapter 44
Pelagius Argues that Abel Was Sinless

Chapter 45 [XXXVIII.]
Why Cain Has Been by Some Thought to Have Had Children by His Mother Eve. The Sins of Righteous Men. Who Can Be Both Righteous, and Yet Not Without Sin

Chapter 46 [XXXIX.]
Shall We Follow Scripture, or Add to Its Declarations?

Chapter 47 [XL.]
For What Pelagius Thought that Christ is Necessary to Us

Chapter 48 [XLI.]
How the Term “All” Is to Be Understood

Chapter 49 [XLII.]
A Man Can Be Sinless, But Only by the Help of Grace. In the Saints This Possibility Advances and Keeps Pace with the Realization

Chapter 50 [XLIII.]
God Commands No Impossibilities

Chapter 51 [XLIV.]
State of the Question Between the Pelagians and the Catholics. Holy Men of Old Saved by the Self-Same Faith in Christ Which We Exercise

Chapter 52
The Whole Discussion is About Grace

Chapter 53 [XLV.]
Pelagius Distinguishes Between a Power and Its Use

Chapter 54 [XLVI.]
There is No Incompatibility Between Necessity and Free Will

Chapter 55 [XLVII.]
The Same Continued

Chapter 56 [XLVIII.]
The Assistance of Grace in a Perfect Nature

Chapter 57 [XLIX.]
It Does Not Detract from God’s Almighty Power, that He is Incapable of Either Sinning, or Dying, or Destroying Himself

Chapter 58 [L.]
Even Pious and God-Fearing Men Resist Grace

Chapter 59 [LI.]
In What Sense Pelagius Attributed to God’s Grace the Capacity of Not Sinning

Chapter 60 [LII.]
Pelagius Admits “Contrary Flesh” In the Unbaptized

Chapter 61 [LIII.]
Paul Asserts that the Flesh is Contrary Even in the Baptized

Chapter 62
Concerning What Grace of God is Here Under Discussion. The Ungodly Man, When Dying, is Not Delivered from Concupiscence

Chapter 63 [LIV.]
Does God Create Contraries?

Chapter 64
Pelagius’ Admission as Regards the Unbaptized, Fatal

Chapter 65 [LV.]
”This Body of Death,” So Called from Its Defect, Not from Its Substance

Chapter 66
The Works, Not the Substance, of the “Flesh” Opposed to the “Spirit.”

Chapter 67 [LVII.]
Who May Be Said to Be Under the Law

Chapter 68 [LVIII.]
Despite the Devil, Man May, by God’s Help, Be Perfected

Chapter 69 [LIX.]
Pelagius Puts Nature in the Place of Grace

Chapter 70 [LX.]
Whether Any Man is Without Sin in This Life

Chapter 71 [LXI.]
Augustin Replies Against the Quotations Which Pelagius Had Advanced Out of the Catholic Writers. Lactantius

Chapter 72 [LXI.]
Hilary. The Pure in Heart Blessed. The Doing and Perfecting of Righteousness

Chapter 73
He Meets Pelagius with Another Passage from Hilary

Chapter 74 [LXIII.]
Ambrose

Chapter 75
Augustin Adduces in Reply Some Other Passages of Ambrose

Chapter 76 [LXIV.]
John of Constantinople

Chapter 77
Xystus

Chapter 78 [LXV.]
Jerome

Chapter 79 [LXVI.]
A Certain Necessity of Sinning

Chapter 80 [LXVII.]
Augustin Himself. Two Methods Whereby Sins, Like Diseases, are Guarded Against

Chapter 81
Augustin Quotes Himself on Free Will

Chapter 82 [LXVIII.]
How to Exhort Men to Faith, Repentance, and Advancement

Chapter 83 [LXIX.]
God Enjoins No Impossibility, Because All Things are Possible and Easy to Love

Chapter 84 [LXX.]
The Degrees of Love are Also Degrees of Holiness

A Treatise Concerning Man’s Perfection In Righteousness

Chapter I

Chapter II
(1.) The First Breviate of Coelestius

Chapter III
(5.) The Fifth Breviate

Chapter IV
(9.) The Ninth Breviate

Chapter V
(11.) The Eleventh Breviate

Chapter VI
(12.) The Twelfth Breviate

Chapter VII
(16.) The Sixteenth Breviate

Chapter VIII
(17.) It is One Thing to Depart from the Body, Another Thing to Be Liberated from the Body of This Death

Chapter IX
(20.) Who May Be Said to Walk Without Spot; Damnable and Venial Sins

Chapter X
(21.) To Whom God’s Commandments are Grievous; And to Whom, Not. Why Scripture Says that God’s Commandments are Not Grievous; A Commandment is a Proof of the Freedom Of Man’s Will; Prayer is a Proof of Grace

Chapter XI
(23.) Passages of Scripture Which, When Objected Against Him by the Catholics, Coelestius Endeavours to Elude by Other Passages: the First Passage

Chapter XII
(29.) The Second Passage. Who May Be Said to Abstain from Every Evil Thing

Chapter XIII
(31.) The Third Passage. It is One Thing to Depart, and Another Thing to Have Departed, from All Sin. “There is None that Doeth Good,”—Of Whom This is to Be Understood

Chapter XIV
(32.) The Fourth Passage. In What Sense God Only is Good. With God to Be Good and to Be Himself are the Same Thing

Chapter XV
(34.) The Opposing Passages

Chapter XVI
(37.) The Sixth Passage

Chapter XVII
(38.) The Seventh Passage. Who May Be Called Immaculate. How It is that in God’s Sight No Man is Justified

Chapter XVIII
(39.) The Eighth Passage. In What Sense He is Said Not to Sin Who is Born of God. In What Way He Who Sins Shall Not See Nor Know God

Chapter XIX
(40.) The Ninth Passage

Chapter XX
(43.) No Man is Assisted Unless He Does Himself Also Work. Our Course is a Constant Progress

Chapter XXI
(44.) Conclusion of the Work. In the Regenerate It is Not Concupiscence, But Consent, Which is Sin

A Work On The Proceedings Of Pelagius

Chapter 1
Introduction

Chapter 2 [I.]
The First Item in the Accusation, and Pelagius’ Answer

Chapter 3
Discussion of Pelagius’ First Answer

Chapter 4 [II.]
The Same Continued

Chapter 5 [III.]
The Second Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Answer

Chapter 6
Pelagius’ Answer Examined

Chapter 7
The Same Continued

Chapter 8
The Same Continued

Chapter 9
The Third Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Answer

Chapter 10
Pelagius’ Answer Examined. On Origen’s Error Concerning the Non-Eternity of the Punishment of the Devil and the Damned

Chapter 11
The Same Continued

Chapter 12 [IV.]
The Fourth Item in the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Answer

Chapter 13 [V.]
The Fifth Item of the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Answer

Chapter 14
Examination of This Point. The Phrase “Old Testament” Used in Two Senses. The Heir of the Old Testament. In the Old Testament There Were Heirs of the New Testament

Chapter 15
The Same Continued

Chapter 16 [VI.]
The Sixth Item of the Accusation, and Pelagius’ Reply

Chapter 17
Examination of the Sixth Charge and Answers

Chapter 18
The Same Continued

Chapter 19
The Same Continued

Chapter 20
The Same Continued. Pelagius Acknowledges the Doctrine of Grace in Deceptive Terms

Chapter 21 [VIII.]
The Same Continued

Chapter 21 [IX.]
The Same Continued

Chapter 22 [X.]
The Same Continued. The Synod Supposed that the Grace Acknowledged by Pelagius Was that Which Was So Thoroughly Known to the Church

Chapter 23 [XI.]
The Seventh Item of the Accusation: the Breviates of Coelestius Objected to Pelagius

Chapter 24
Pelagius’ Answer to the Charges Brought Together Under the Seventh Item

Chapter 25
The Pelagians Falsely Pretended that the Eastern Churches Were on Their Side

Chapter 26
The Accusations in the Seventh Item, Which Pelagius Confessed

Chapter 27 [XII.]
The Eighth Item in the Accusation

Chapter 28
Pelagius’ Reply to the Eighth Item of Accusation

Chapter 29 [XIII.]
The Ninth Item of the Accusation; And Pelagius’ Reply

Chapter 30 [XIV.]
The Tenth Item in the Accusation. The More Prominent Points of Coelestius’ Work Continued

Chapter 31
Remarks on the Tenth Item

Chapter 32
The Eleventh Item of the Accusation

Chapter 33
Discussion of the Eleventh Item Continued

Chapter 34
The Same Continued. On the Works of Unbelievers; Faith is the Initial Principle from Which Good Works Have Their Beginning; Faith is the Gift of God’s Grace

Chapter 35
The Same Continued

Chapter 36
The Same Continued. The Monk Pelagius. Grace is Conferred on the Unworthy

Chapter 37
The Same Continued. John, Bishop of Jerusalem, and His Examination

Chapter 38 [XV.]
The Same Continued

Chapter 39 [XVI.]
The Same Continued. Heros and Lazarus; Orosius

Chapter 40 [XVII.]
The Same Continued

Chapter 41
Augustin Indulgently Shows that the Judges Acted Incautiously in Their Official Conduct of the Case of Pelagius

Chapter 42 [XVIII.]
The Twelfth Item in the Accusation. Other Heads of Coelestius’ Doctrine Abjured by Pelagius

Chapter 43 [XIX.]
The Answer of the Monk Pelagius and His Profession of Faith

Chapter 44 [XX.]
The Acquittal of Pelagius

Chapter 45 [XXI.]
Pelagius’ Acquittal Becomes Suspected

Chapter 46 [XXII.]
How Pelagius Became Known to Augustin; Coelestius Condemned at Carthage

Chapter 47 [XXIII.]
Pelagius’ Book, Which Was Sent by Timasius and Jacobus to Augustin, Was Answered by the Latter in His Work “On Nature and Grace.”

Chapter 48 [XXIV.]
A Letter Written by Timasius and Jacobus to Augustin on Receiving His Treatise “On Nature and Grace.”

Chapter 49 [XXV.]
Pelagius’ Behaviour Contrasted with that of the Writers of the Letter

Chapter 50
Pelagius Has No Good Reason to Be Annoyed If His Name Be at Last Used in the Controversy, and He Be Expressly Refuted

Chapter 51 [XXVI.]
The Nature of Augustin’s Letter to Pelagius

Chapter 52 [XXVII. And XXVIII.]
The Text of the Letter

Chapter 53 [XXIX.]
Pelagius’ Use of Recommendations

Chapter 54 [XXX.]
On the Letter of Pelagius, in Which He Boasts that His Errors Had Been Approved by Fourteen Bishops

Chapter 55
Pelagius’ Letter Discussed

Chapter 56 [XXXI.]
Is Pelagius Sincere?

Chapter 57 [XXXII.]
Fraudulent Practices Pursued by Pelagius in His Report of the Proceedings in Palestine, in the Paper Wherein He Defended Himself to Augustin

Chapter 58
The Same Continued

Chapter 59 [XXXIV.]
Although Pelagius Was Acquitted, His Heresy Was Condemned

Chapter 60 [XXXV.]
The Synod’s Condemnation of His Doctrines

Chapter 61
History of the Pelagian Heresy. The Pelagian Heresy Was Raised by Sundry Persons Who Affected the Monastic State

Chapter 62
The History Continued. Coelestius Condemned at Carthage by Episcopal Judgment. Pelagius Acquitted by Bishops in Palestine, in Consequence of His Deceptive Answers; But Yet His Heresy Was Condemned by Them

Chapter 63
The Same Continued. The Dogmas of Coelestius Laid to the Charge of Pelagius, as His Master, and Condemned

Chapter 64
How the Bishops Cleared Pelagius of Those Charges

Chapter 65
Recapitulation of What Pelagius Condemned

Chapter 66
The Harsh Measures of the Pelagians Against the Holy Monks and Nuns Who Belonged to Jerome’s Charge

A Treatise On The Grace Of Christ, And On Original Sin

Book I
On the Grace of Christ

Chapter 1 [I.]
Introductory

Chapter 2 [II.]
Suspicious Character of Pelagius’ Confession as to the Necessity of Grace for Every Single Act of Ours

Chapter 3 [III.]
Grace According to the Pelagians

Chapter 4
Pelagius’ System of Faculties

Chapter 5 [IV.]
Pelagius’ Own Account of the Faculties, Quoted

Chapter 6 [V.]
Pelagius and Paul of Different Opinions

Chapter 7 [VI.]
Pelagius Posits God’s Aid Only for Our “Capacity.”

Chapter 8
Grace, According to the Pelagians, Consists in the Internal and Manifold Illumination of the Mind

Chapter 9 [VIII.]
The Law One Thing, Grace Another. The Utility of the Law

Chapter 10 [IX.]
What Purpose the Law Subserves

Chapter 11 [X.]
Pelagius’ Definition of How God Helps Us: “He Promises Us Future Glory.”

Chapter 12 [XI.]
The Same Continued: “He Reveals Wisdom.”

Chapter 13 [XII.]
Grace Causes Us to Do

Chapter 14 [XII.]
The Righteousness Which is of God, and the Righteousness Which is of the Law

Chapter 15 [XIV.]
He Who Has Been Taught by Grace Actually Comes to Christ

Chapter 16 [XV.]
We Need Divine Aid in the Use of Our Powers. Illustration from Sight

Chapter 17 [XVI.]
Does Pelagius Designedly Refrain from Openly Saying that All Good Action is from God?

Chapter 18 [XVII.]
He Discovers the Reason of Pelagius’ Hesitation So to Say

Chapter 19 [XVIII.]
The Two Roots of Action, Love and Cupidity; And Each Brings Forth Its Own Fruit

Chapter 20 [XIX.]
How a Man Makes a Good or a Bad Tree

Chapter 21 [XX.]
Love the Root of All Good Things; Cupidity, of All Evil Ones

Chapter 22 [XXI.]
Love is a Good Will

Chapter 23 [XXII.]
Pelagius’ Double Dealing Concerning the Ground of the Conferrence of Grace

Chapter 24
Pelagius Places Free Will at the Basis of All Turning to God for Grace

Chapter 25 [XXIV.]
God by His Wonderful Power Works in Our Hearts Good Dispositions of Our Will

Chapter 26 [XXV.]
The Pelagian Grace of “Capacity” Exploded. The Scripture Teaches the Need of God’s Help in Doing, Speaking, and Thinking, Alike

Chapter 27 [XXVI.]
What True Grace Is, and Wherefore Given. Merits Do Not Precede Grace

Chapter 28 [XXVII.]
Pelagius Teaches that Satan May Be Resisted Without the Help of the Grace of God

Chapter 29 [XXVIII.]
When He Speaks of God’s Help, He Means It Only to Help Us Do What Without It We Still Could Do

Chapter 30 [XXIX.]
What Pelagius Thinks is Needful for Ease of Performance is Really Necessary for the Performance

Chapter 31 [XXX.]
Pelagius and Coelestius Nowhere Really Acknowledge Grace

Chapter 32
Why the Pelagians Deemed Prayers to Be Necessary. The Letter Which Pelagius Despatched to Pope Innocent with an Exposition of His Belief

Chapter 33 [XXXI.]
Pelagius Professes Nothing on the Subject of Grace Which May Not Be Understood of the Law and Teaching

Chapter 34
Pelagius Says that Grace is Given According to Men’s Merits. The Beginning, However, of Merit is Faith; And This is a Gratuitous Gift, Not a Recompense for Our Merits

Chapter 35 [XXXII.]
Pelagius Believes that Infants Have No Sin to Be Remitted in Baptism

Chapter 36 [XXXIII.]
Coelestius Openly Declares Infants to Have No Original Sin

Chapter 37 [XXXIV.]
Pelagius Nowhere Admits the Need of Divine Help for Will and Action

Chapter 38 [XXXV.]
A Definition of the Grace of Christ by Pelagius

Chapter 39 [XXXVI]
A Letter of Pelagius Unknown to Augustin

Chapter 40 [XXXVII]
The Help of Grace Placed by Pelagius in the Mere Revelation of Teaching

Chapter 41
Restoration of Nature Understood by Pelagius as Forgiveness of Sins

Chapter 42 [XXXVIII.]
Grace Placed by Pelagius in the Remission of Sins and the Example of Christ

Chapter 43 [XXXIX.]
The Forgiveness of Sins and Example of Christ Held by Pelagius Enough to Save the Most Hardened Sinner

Chapter 44 [XL.]
Pelagius Once More Guards Himself Against the Necessity of Grace

Chapter 45 [XLI.]
To What Purpose Pelagius Thought Prayers Ought to Be Offered

Chapter 46 [XLII]
Pelagius Professes to Respect the Catholic Authors

Chapter 47 [XLIII.]
Ambrose Most Highly Praised by Pelagius

Chapter 48 [XLIV]
Ambrose is Not in Agreement with Pelagius

Chapter 49 [XLV.]
Ambrose Teaches with What Eye Christ Turned and Looked Upon Peter

Chapter 50
Ambrose Teaches that All Men Need God’s Help

Chapter 51 [XLVI.]
Ambrose Teaches that It is God that Does for Man What Pelagius Attributes to Free Will

Chapter 52 [XLVII.]
If Pelagius Agrees with Ambrose, Augustin Has No Controversy with Him

Chapter 53 [XLVIII.]
In What Sense Some Men May Be Said to Live Without Sin in the Present Life

Chapter 54 [XLIX.]
Ambrose Teaches that No One is Sinless in This World

Chapter 55 [L.]
Ambrose Witnesses that Perfect Purity is Impossible to Human Nature

Book II
On Original Sin

Chapter 1 [I.]
Caution Needed in Attending to Pelagius’ Deliverances on Infant Baptism

Chapter 2 [II.]
Coelestius, on His Trial at Carthage, Refuses to Condemn His Error; The Written Statement Which He Gave to Zosimus

Chapter 3 [III.]
Part of the Proceedings of the Council of Carthage Against Coelestius

Chapter 4
Coelestius Concedes Baptism for Infants, Without Affirming Original Sin

Chapter 5 [V.]
Coelestius’ Book Which Was Produced in the Proceedings at Rome

Chapter 6 [VI.]
Coelestius the Disciple is In This Work Bolder Than His Master

Chapter 7
Pope Zosimus Kindly Excuses Him

Chapter 8 [VII.]
Coelestius Condemned by Zosimus

Chapter 9 [VIII.]
Pelagius Deceived the Council in Palestine, But Was Unable to Deceive the Church at Rome

Chapter 10 [IX.]
The Judgment of Innocent Respecting the Proceedings in Palestine

Chapter 11 [X.]
How that Pelagius Deceived the Synod of Palestine

Chapter 12 [XI.]
A Portion of the Proceedings of the Synod of Palestine in the Cause of Pelagius

Chapter 13 [XII.]
Coelestius the Bolder Heretic; Pelagius the More Subtle

Chapter 14 [XIII.]
He Shows That, Even After the Synod of Palestine, Pelagius Held the Same Opinions as Coelestius on the Subject of Original Sin

Chapter 15 [XIV.]
Pelagius by His Mendacity and Deception Stole His Acquittal from the Synod in Palestine

Chapter 16 [XV.]
Pelagius’ Fraudulent and Crafty Excuses

Chapter 17
How Pelagius Deceived His Judges

Chapter 18 [XVII.]
The Condemnation of Pelagius

Chapter 19
Pelagius’ Attempt to Deceive the Apostolic See; He Inverts the Bearings of the Controversy

Chapter 20
Pelagius Provides a Refuge for His Falsehood in Ambiguous Subterfuges

Chapter 21 [XIX.]
Pelagius Avoids the Question as to Why Baptism is Necessary for Infants

Chapter 22 [XX.]
Another Instance of Pelagius’ Ambiguity

Chapter 23 [XXI.]
What He Means by Our Birth to an “Uncertain” Life

Chapter 24
Pelagius’ Long Residence at Rome

Chapter 25 [XXII.]
The Condemnation of Pelagius and Coelestius

Chapter 26 [XXIII.]
The Pelagians Maintain that Raising Questions About Original Sin Does Not Endanger the Faith

Chapter 27 [XXIII.]
On Questions Outside the Faith—What They Are, and Instances of the Same

Chapter 28 [XXIV.]
The Heresy of Pelagius and Coelestius Aims at the Very Foundations of Our Faith

Chapter 29
The Righteous Men Who Lived in the Time of the Law Were for All that Not Under the Law, But Under Grace. The Grace of the New Testament Hidden Under the Old

Chapter 30 [XXVI]
Pelagius and Coelestius Deny that the Ancient Saints Were Saved by Christ

Chapter 31
Christ’s Incarnation Was of Avail to the Fathers, Even Though It Had Not Yet Happened

Chapter 32 [XXVII.]
He Shows by the Example of Abraham that the Ancient Saints Believed in the Incarnation of Christ

Chapter 33 [XVIII.]
How Christ is Our Mediator

Chapter 34 [XXIX.]
No Man Ever Saved Save by Christ

Chapter 35 [XXX.]
Why the Circumcision of Infants Was Enjoined Under Pain of So Great a Punishment

Chapter 36 [XXXI]
The Platonists’ Opinion About the Existence of the Soul Previous to the Body Rejected

Chapter 37 [XXXII.]
In What Sense Christ is Called “Sin.”

Chapter 38 [XXXIII.]
Original Sin Does Not Render Marriage Evil

Chapter 39 [XXXIV.]
Three Things Good and Laudable in Matrimony

Chapter 40 [XXXV.]
Marriage Existed Before Sin Was Committed. How God’s Blessing Operated in Our First Parents

Chapter 41 [XXXVI.]
Lust and Travail Come from Sin. Whence Our Members Became a Cause of Shame

Chapter 42 [XXXVII.]
The Evil of Lust Ought Not to Be Ascribed to Marriage. The Three Good Results of the Nuptial Ordinance: Offspring, Chastity, and the Sacramental Union

Chapter 43 [XXXVIII.]
Human Offspring, Even Previous to Birth, Under Condemnation at the Very Root. Uses of Matrimony Undertaken for Mere Pleasure Not Without Venial Fault

Chapter 44 [XXXIX.]
Even the Children of the Regenerate Born in Sin. The Effect of Baptism

Chapter 45
Man’s Deliverance Suited to the Character of His Captivity

Chapter 46
Difficulty of Believing Original Sin. Man’s Vice is a Beast’s Nature

Chapter 47 [XLI.]
Sentences from Ambrose in Favour of Original Sin

Chapter 48
Pelagius Rightly Condemned and Really Opposed by Ambrose

On Marriage And Concupiscence

A Letter Addressed to the Count Valerius

Book I

Chapter 1
Concerning the Argument of This Treatise

Chapter 2. [II.]
Why This Treatise Was Addressed to Valerius

Chapter 3 [III.]
Conjugal Chastity the Gift of God

Chapter 4
A Difficulty as Regards the Chastity of Unbelievers. None But a Believer is Truly a Chaste Man

Chapter 5 [IV.]
The Natural Good of Marriage. All Society Naturally Repudiates a Fraudulent Companion. What is True Conjugal Purity? No True Virginity and Chastity Except in Devotion to True Faith

Chapter 6 [V.]
The Censuring of Lust is Not a Condemnation of Marriage; Whence Comes Shame in the Human Body. Adam and Eve Were Not Created Blind; Meaning of Their “Eyes Being Opened.”

Chapter 7 [VI.]
Man’s Disobedience Justly Requited in the Rebellion of His Own Flesh; The Blush of Shame for the Disobedient Members of the Body

Chapter 8 [VII.]
The Evil of Lust Does Not Take Away the Good of Marriage

Chapter 9 [VIII.]
This Disease of Concupiscence in Marriage is Not to Be a Matter of Will, But of Necessity; What Ought to Be the Will of Believers in the Use of Matrimony; Who is to Be Regarded as Using, and Not Succumbing To, the Evil of Concupiscence; How the Holy Fathers of the Old Testament Formerly Used Wives

Chapter 10 [IX.]
Why It Was Sometimes Permitted that a Man Should Have Several Wives, Yet No Woman Was Ever Allowed to Have More Than One Husband. Nature Prefers Singleness in Her Dominations

Chapter 11 [X.]
The Sacrament of Marriage; Marriage Indissoluble; The World’s Law About Divorce Different from the Gospel’s

Chapter 12 [XI.]
Marriage Does Not Cancel a Mutual Vow of Continence; There Was True Wedlock Between Mary and Joseph; In What Way Joseph Was the Father of Christ

Chapter 13
In the Marriage of Mary and Joseph There Were All the Blessings of the Wedded State; All that is Born of Concubinage is Sinful Flesh

Chapter 14 [XIII.]
Before Christ It Was a Time for Marrying; Since Christ It Has Been a Time for Continence

Chapter 15
The Teaching of the Apostle on This Subject

Chapter 16 [XIV.]
A Certain Degree of Intemperance is to Be Tolerated in the Case of Married Persons; The Use of Matrimony for the Mere Pleasure of Lust is Not Without Sin, But Because of the Nuptial Relation the Sin is Venial

Chapter 17 [XV.]
What is Sinless in the Use of Matrimony? What is Attended With Venial Sin, and What with Mortal?

Chapter 18 [XVI.]
Continence Better Than Marriage; But Marriage Better Than Fornication

Chapter 19 [XVII.]
Blessing of Matrimony

Chapter 20 [XVIII]
Why Children of Wrath are Born of Holy Matrimony

Chapter 21 [XIX.]
Thus Sinners are Born of Righteous Parents, Even as Wild Olives Spring from the Olive

Chapter 22 [XX.]
Even Infants, When Unbaptized, are in the Power of the Devil; Exorcism in the Case of Infants, and Renunciation of the Devil

Chapter 23 [XXI.]
Sin Has Not Arisen Out of the Goodness of Marriage; The Sacrament of Matrimony a Great One in the Case of Christ and the Church—A Very Small One in the Case of a Man and His Wife

Chapter 24
Lust and Shame Come from Sin; The Law of Sin; The Shamelessness of the Cynics

Chapter 25 [XXIII.]
Concupiscence in the Regenerate Without Consent is Not Sin; In What Sense Concupiscence is Called Sin

Chapter 26
Whatever is Born Through Concupiscence is Not Undeservedly in Subjection to the Devil by Reason of Sin; The Devil Deserves Heavier Punishment Than Men

Chapter 27 [XXIV.]
Through Lust Original Sin is Transmitted; Venial Sins in Married Persons; Concupiscence of the Flesh, the Daughter and Mother of Sin

Chapter 28 [XXV.]
Concupiscence Remains After Baptism, Just as Languor Does After Recovery from Disease; Concupiscence is Diminished in Persons of Advancing Years, and Increased in the Incontinent

Chapter 29 [XXVI.]
How Concupiscence Remains in the Baptized in Act, When It Has Passed Away as to Its Guilt

Chapter 30 [XXVII.]
The Evil Desires of Concupiscence; We Ought to Wish that They May Not Be

Chapter 31 [XXVIII.]
Who is the Man that Can Say, “It is No More I that Do It”?

Chapter 32
When Good Will Be Perfectly Done

Chapter 33 [XXX.]
True Freedom Comes with Willing Delight in God’s Law

Chapter 34
How Concupiscence Made a Captive of the Apostle; What the Law of Sin Was to the Apostle

Chapter 35 [XXXI.]
The Flesh, Carnal Affection

Chapter 36
Even Now While We Still Have Concupiscence We May Be Safe in Christ

Chapter 37 [XXXII.]
The Law of Sin with Its Guilt in Unbaptized Infants. By Adam’s Sin the Human Race Has Become a “Wild Olive Tree.”

Chapter 38 [XXXIII.]
To Baptism Must Be Referred All Remission of Sins, and the Complete Healing of the Resurrection. Daily Cleansing

Chapter 39 [XXXIV.]
By the Holiness of Baptism, Not Sins Only, But All Evils Whatsoever, Have to Be Removed. The Church is Not Yet Free from All Stain

Chapter 40 [XXXV.]
Refutation of the Pelagians by the Authority of St. Ambrose, Whom They Quote to Show that the Desire of the Flesh is a Natural Good

Preliminary Notes On The Second Book

Book II

Chapter 1 [I.]
Introductory Statement

Chapter 2 [II.]
In This and the Four Next Chapters He Adduces the Garbled Extracts He Has to Consider

Chapter 3
The Same Continued

Chapter 4
The Same Continued

Chapter 5
The Same Continued

Chapter 6
The Same Continued

Chapter 7 [III.]
Augustin Adduces a Passage Selected from the Preface of Julianus. (See “The Unfinished Work,” i. 73.)

Chapter 8
Augustin Refutes the Passage Adduced Above

Chapter 9
The Catholics Maintain the Doctrine of Original Sin, and Thus are Far from Being Manicheans

Chapter 10 [IV.]
In What Manner the Adversary’s Cavils Must Be Refuted

Chapter 11
The Devil the Author, Not of Nature, But Only of Sin

Chapter 12
Eve’s Name Means Life, and is a Great Sacrament of the Church

Chapter 13
The Pelagian Argument to Show that the Devil Has No Rights in the Fruits of Marriage

Chapter 14 [V.]
Concupiscence Alone, in Marriage, is Not of God

Chapter 15
Man, by Birth, is Placed Under the Dominion of the Devil Through Sin; We Were All One in Adam When He Sinned

Chapter 16 [VI.]
It is Not of Us, But Our Sins, that the Devil is the Author

Chapter 17 [VII.]
The Pelagians are Not Ashamed to Eulogize Concupiscence, Although They are Ashamed to Mention Its Name

Chapter 18
The Same Continued

Chapter 19 [VIII.]
The Pelagians Misunderstand “Seed” In Scripture

Chapter 20
Original Sin is Derived from the Faulty Condition of Human Seed

Chapter 21 [IX.]
It is the Good God That Gives Fruitfulness, and the Devil That Corrupts the Fruit

Chapter 22
Shall We Be Ashamed of What We Do, or of What God Does?

Chapter 23 [X.]
The Pelagians Affirm that God in the Case of Abraham and Sarah Aroused Concupiscence as a Gift from Heaven

Chapter 24 [XI.]
What Covenant of God the New-Born Babe Breaks. What Was the Value of Circumcision

Chapter 25 [XII.]
Augustin Not the Deviser of Original Sin

Chapter 26 [XIII.]
The Child in No Sense Formed by Concupiscence

Chapter 27
The Pelagians Argue that God Sometimes Closes the Womb in Anger, and Opens It When Appeased

Chapter 28 [XIV.]
Augustin’s Answer to This Argument. Its Dealing with Scripture

Chapter 29
The Same Continued. Augustin Also Asserts that God Forms Man at Birth

Chapter 30 [XV.]
The Case of Abimelech and His House Examined

Chapter 31 [XVI.]
Why God Proceeds to Create Human Beings, Who He Knows Will Be Born in Sin

Chapter 32 [XVII.]
God Not the Author of the Evil in Those Whom He Creates

Chapter 33 [XVIII.]
Though God Makes Us, We Perish Unless He Re-makes Us in Christ

Chapter 34 [XIX.]
The Pelagians Argue that Cohabitation Rightly Used is a Good, and What is Born from It is Good

Chapter 35 [XX.]
He Answers the Arguments of Julianus. What is the Natural Use of the Woman? What is the Unnatural Use?

Chapter 36 [XXI.]
God Made Nature Good: the Saviour Restores It When Corrupted

Chapter 37 [XXII.]
If There is No Marriage Without Cohabitation, So There is No Cohabitation Without Shame

Chapter 38 [XXIII.]
Jovinian Used Formerly to Call Catholics Manicheans; The Arians Also Used to Call Catholics Sabellians

Chapter 39 [XXIV.]
Man Born of Whatever Parentage is Sinful and Capable of Redemption

Chapter 40 [XXV.]
Augustin Declines the Dilemma Offered Him

Chapter 41 [XXVI.]
The Pelagians Argue that Original Sin Cannot Come Through Marriage If Marriage is Good

Chapter 42
The Pelagians Try to Get Rid of Original Sin by Their Praise of God’s Works; Marriage, in Its Nature and by Its Institution, is Not the Cause of Sin

Chapter 43
The Good Tree in the Gospel that Cannot Bring Forth Evil Fruit, Does Not Mean Marriage

Chapter 44 [XXVII.]
The Pelagians Argue that If Sin Comes by Birth, All Married People Deserve Condemnation

Chapter 45
Answer to This Argument: The Apostle Says We All Sinned in One

Chapter 46
The Reign of Death, What It Is; The Figure of the Future Adam; How All Men are Justified Through Christ

Chapter 47
The Scriptures Repeatedly Teach Us that All Sin in One

Chapter 48
Original Sin Arose from Adam’s Depraved Will. Whence the Corrupt Will Sprang

Chapter 49 [XXIX.]
In Infants Nature is of God, and the Corruption of Nature of the Devil

Chapter 50
The Rise and Origin of Evil. The Exorcism and Exsufflation of Infants, a Primitive Christian Rite

Chapter 51
To Call Those that Teach Original Sin Manicheans is to Accuse Ambrose, Cyprian, and the Whole Church

Chapter 52 [XXX.]
Sin Was the Origin of All Shameful Concupiscence

Chapter 53 [XXXI.]
Concupiscence Need Not Have Been Necessary for Fruitfulness

Chapter 54 [XXXII.]
How Marriage is Now Different Since the Existence of Sin

Chapter 55 [XXXIII.]
Lust is a Disease; The Word “Passion” In the Ecclesiastical Sense

Chapter 56
The Pelagians Allow that Christ Died Even for Infants; Julianus Slays Himself with His Own Sword

Chapter 57 [XXXIV.]
The Great Sin of the First Man

Chapter 58
Adam’s Sin is Derived from Him to Every One Who is Born Even of Regenerate Parents; The Example of the Olive Tree and the Wild Olive

Chapter 59 [XXXV.]
The Pelagians Can Hardly Venture to Place Concupiscence in Paradise Before the Commission of Sin

Chapter 60
Let Not the Pelagians Indulge Themselves in a Cruel Defence of Infants

A Treatise On The Soul And Its Origin

Book I
Addressed to Renatus, the Monk

Chapter 1 [I.]
Renatus Had Done Him a Kindness by Sending Him the Books Which Had Been Addressed to Him

Chapter 2 [II.]
He Receives with a Kindly and Patient Feeling the Books of a Young and Inexperienced Man Who Wrote Against Him in a Tone of Arrogance. Vincentius Victor Converted from the Sect of the Rogatians

Chapter 3 [III]
The Eloquence of Vincentius, Its Dangers and Its Tolerableness

Chapter 4 [IV.]
The Errors Contained in the Books of Vincentius Victor. He Says that the Soul Comes from God, But Was Not Made Either Out of Nothing or Out of Any Created Thing

Chapter 5 [V.]
Another of Victor’s Errors, that the Soul is Corporeal

Chapter 6 [VI.]
Another Error Out of His Second Book, to the Effect, that the Soul Deserved to Be Polluted by the Body

Chapter 7 [VII.]
Victor Entangles Himself in an Exceedingly Difficult Question. God’s Foreknowledge is No Cause of Sin

Chapter 8 [VIII.]
Victor’s Erroneous Opinion, that the Soul Deserved to Become Sinful

Chapter 9
Victor Utterly Unable to Explain How the Sinless Soul Deserved to Be Made Sinful

Chapter 10 [IX.]
Another Error of Victor’s, that Infants Dying Unbaptized May Attain to the Kingdom of Heaven. Another, that the Sacrifice of the Body of Christ Must Be Offered for Infants Who Die Before They are Baptized

Chapter 11
Martyrdom for Christ Supplies the Place of Baptism. The Faith of the Thief Who Was Crucified Along with Christ Taken as Martyrdom and Hence for Baptism

Chapter 12 [X.]
Dinocrates, Brother of the Martyr St. Perpetua, is Said to Have Been Delivered from the State of Condemnation by the Prayers of the Saint

Chapter 13 [XI.]
The Sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ Will Not Avail for Unbaptized Persons, and Can Not Be Offered for the Majority of Those Who Die Unbaptized

Chapter 14
Victor’s Dilemma: He Must Either Say All Infants are Saved, or Else God Slays the Innocent

Chapter 15 [XII.]
God Does Not Judge Any One for What He Might Have Done If His Life Had Been Prolonged, But Simply for the Deeds He Actually Commits

Chapter 16 [XIII.]
Difficulty in the Opinion Which Maintains that Souls are Not by Propagation

Chapter 17 [XIV.]
He Shows that the Passages of Scripture Adduced by Victor Do Not Prove that Souls are Made by God in Such a Way as Not to Be Derived by Propagation: First Passage

Chapter 18
By “Breath” Is Signified Sometimes the Holy Spirit

Chapter 19
The Meaning of “Breath” In Scripture

Chapter 20
Other Ways of Taking the Passage

Chapter 21
The Second Passage Quoted by Victor

Chapter 22
Victor’s Third Quotation

Chapter 23
His Fourth Quotation

Chapter 24 [XV.]
Whether or No the Soul is Derived by Natural Descent (Ex Traduce), His Cited Passages Fail to Show

Chapter 25
Just as the Mother Knows Not Whence Comes Her Child Within Her, So We Know Not Whence Comes the Soul

Chapter 26 [XVI.]
The Fifth Passage of Scripture Quoted by Victor

Chapter 27 [XVII.]
Augustin Did Not Venture to Define Anything About the Propagation of the Soul

Chapter 28
A Natural Figure of Speech Must Not Be Literally Pressed

Chapter 29 [XVIII.]
The Sixth Passage of Scripture Quoted by Victor

Chapter 30
The Danger of Arguing from Silence

Chapter 31
The Argument of the Apollinarians to Prove that Christ Was Without the Human Soul of This Same Sort

Chapter 32 [XIX.]
The Self-Contradiction of Victor as to the Origin of the Soul

Chapter 33
Augustin Has No Objection to the Opinion About the Propagation of Souls Being Refuted, and that About Their Insufflation Being Maintained

Chapter 34
The Mistakes Which Must Be Avoided by Those Who Say that Men’s Souls are Not Derived from Their Parents, But are Afresh Inbreathed by God in Every Instance

Chapter 35 [XX.]
Conclusion

Book II
In the Shape of a Letter Addressed to the Presbyter Peter

Chapter 1 [I.]
Depraved Eloquence an Injurious Accomplishment

Chapter 2 [II.]
He Asks What the Great Knowledge is that Victor Imparts

Chapter 3
The Difference Between the Senses of the Body and Soul

Chapter 4
To Believe the Soul is a Part of God is Blasphemy

Chapter 5 [III.]
In What Sense Created Beings are Out of God

Chapter 6
Shall God’s Nature Be Mutable, Sinful, Impious, Even Eternally Damned

Chapter 7
To Think the Soul Corporeal an Error

Chapter 8
The Thirst of the Rich Man in Hell Does Not Prove the Soul to Be Corporeal

Chapter 9 [V.]
How Could the Incorporeal God Breathe Out of Himself a Corporeal Substance?

Chapter 10 [VI.]
Children May Be Found of Like or of Unlike Dispositions with Their Parents

Chapter 11 [VII.]
Victor Implies that the Soul Had a “State” And “Merit” Before Incarnation

Chapter 12 [VIII.]
How Did the Soul Deserve to Be Incarnated?

Chapter 13 [IX.]
Victor Teaches that God Thwarts His Own Predestination

Chapter 14 [X.]
Victor Sends Those Infants Who Die Unbaptized to Paradise and the Heavenly Mansions, But Not to the Kingdom of Heaven

Chapter 15 [XI.]
Victor “Decides” That Oblations Should Be Offered Up for Those Who Die Unbaptized

Chapter 16 [XII.]
Victor Promises to the Unbaptized Paradise After Their Death, and the Kingdom of Heaven After Their Resurrection, Although He Admits that This Opposes Christ’s Statement

Chapter 17
Disobedient Compassion and Compassionate Disobedience Reprobated. Martyrdom in Lieu of Baptism

Chapter 18 [XIII.]
Victor’s Dilemma and Fall

Chapter 19 [XIV.]
Victor Relies on Ambiguous Scriptures

Chapter 20
Victor Quotes Scriptures for Their Silence, and Neglects the Biblical Usage

Chapter 21 [XV.]
Victor’s Perplexity and Failure

Chapter 22 [XVI.]
Peter’s Responsibility in the Case of Victor

Chapter 23 [XVII.]
Who They are that are Not Injured by Reading Injurious Books

Book III
Addressed to Vincentius Victor

Chapter 1 [I.]
Augustin’s Purpose in Writing

Chapter 2 [II.]
Why Victor Assumed the Name of Vincentius. The Names of Evil Men Ought Never to Be Assumed by Other Persons

Chapter 3 [III.]
He Enumerates the Errors Which He Desires to Have Amended in the Books of Vincentius Victor. The First Error

Chapter 4 [IV.]
Victor’s Simile to Show that God Can Create by Breathing Without Impartation of His Substance

Chapter 5
Examination of Victor’s Simile: Does Man Give Out Nothing by Breathing?

Chapter 6
The Simile Reformed in Accordance with Truth

Chapter 7 [V.]
Victor Apparently Gives the Creative Breath to Man Also

Chapter 8 [VI.]
Victor’s Second Error. (See Above in Book I. 26 [XVI.].)

Chapter 9 [VII.]
His Third Error. (See Above in Book II. 11 [VII.].)

Chapter 10
His Fourth Error. (See Above in Book I. 6 [VI.] and Book II. 11 [VII.].)

Chapter 11 [VIII.]
His Fifth Error. (See Above in Book I. 8 [VIII.] and Book II. 12 [VIII.].)

Chapter 12 [IX.]
His Sixth Error. (See Above in Book I. 10–12 [IX., X.], and in Book II. 13, 14 [IX., X.].)

Chapter 13 [X]
His Seventh Error. (See Above in Book II. 13 [IX.].)

Chapter 14
His Eighth Error. (See Above in Book II. 13 [IX.].)

Chapter 15 [XI.]
His Ninth Error. (See Above in Book II. 14 [X.].)

Chapter 16
God Rules Everywhere: and Yet the “Kingdom of Heaven” May Not Be Everywhere

Chapter 17
Where the Kingdom of God May Be Understood to Be

Chapter 18 [XII.]
His Tenth Error. (See Above in Book I. 13 [XI.] and Book II. 15 [XI.])

Chapter 19 [XIII.]
His Eleventh Error. (See Above in Book I. 15 [XII.] and Book II. 16.)

Chapter 20 [XIV.]
Augustin Calls on Victor to Correct His Errors. (See Above in Book II. 22 [XVI.].)

Chapter 21
Augustin Compliments Victor’s Talents and Diligence

Chapter 22 [XV.]
A Summary Recapitulation of the Errors of Victor

Chapter 23
Obstinacy Makes the Heretic

Book IV
Addressed to Vincentius Victor

Chapter 1 [I.]
The Personal Character of This Book

Chapter 2 [II.]
The Points Which Victor Thought Blameworthy in Augustin

Chapter 3
How Much Do We Know of the Nature of the Body?

Chapter 4 [III.]
Is the Question of Breath One that Concerns the Soul, or Body, or What?

Chapter 5 [IV.]
God Alone Can Teach Whence Souls Come

Chapter 6 [V.]
Questions About the Nature of the Body are Sufficiently Mysterious, and Yet Not Higher Than Those of the Soul

Chapter 7 [VI.]
We Often Need More Teaching as to What is Most Intimately Ours Than as to What is Further from Us

Chapter 8
We Have No Memory of Our Creation

Chapter 9 [VII.]
Our Ignorance of Ourselves Illustrated by the Remarkable Memory of One Simplicius

Chapter 10
The Fidelity of Memory; The Unsearchable Treasure of Memory; The Powers of a Man’s Understanding Sufficiently Understood by None

Chapter 11
The Apostle Peter Told No Lie, When He Said He Was Ready to Lay Down His Life for the Lord, But Only Was Ignorant of His Will

Chapter 12 [VIII.]
The Apostle Paul Could Know the Third Heaven and Paradise, But Not Whether He Was in the Body or Not

Chapter 13 [IX.]
In What Sense the Holy Ghost is Said to Make Intercession for Us

Chapter 14 [X.]
It is More Excellent to Know That the Flesh Will Rise Again and Live for Evermore, Than to Learn Whatever Scientific Men Have Been Able to Teach Us Concerning Its Nature

Chapter 15 [XI.]
We Must Not Be Wise Above What is Written

Chapter 16
Ignorance is Better Than Error. Predestination to Eternal Life, and Predestination to Eternal Death

Chapter 17 [XII.]
A Twofold Question to Be Treated Concerning the Soul; Is It “Body”? and is It “Spirit”? What Body is

Chapter 18
The First Question, Whether the Soul is Corporeal; Breath and Wind, Nothing Else Than Air in Motion

Chapter 19 [XIII.]
Whether the Soul is a Spirit

Chapter 20 [XIV.]
The Body Does Not Receive God’s Image

Chapter 21 [XV.]
Recognition and Form Belong to Souls as Well as Bodies

Chapter 22
Names Do Not Imply Corporeity

Chapter 23 [XVI.]
Figurative Speech Must Not Be Taken Literally

Chapter 24
Abraham’s Bosom—What It Means

Chapter 25 [XVII.]
The Disembodied Soul May Think of Itself Under a Bodily Form

Chapter 26 [XVIII.]
St. Perpetua Seemed to Herself, in Some Dreams, to Have Been Turned into a Man, and Then Have Wrestled with a Certain Egyptian

Chapter 27
Is the Soul Wounded When the Body is Wounded?

Chapter 28
Is the Soul Deformed by the Body’s Imperfections?

Chapter 29 [XIX.]
Does the Soul Take the Body’s Clothes Also Away with It?

Chapter 30
Is Corporeity Necessary for Recognition?

Chapter 31 [XX.]
Modes of Knowledge in the Soul Distinguished

Chapter 32
Inconsistency of Giving the Soul All the Parts of Sex and Yet No Sex

Chapter 33
The Phenix After Death Coming to Life Again

Chapter 34 [XXI.]
Prophetic Visions

Chapter 35
Do Angels Appear to Men in Real Bodies?

Chapter 36 [XXII.]
He Passes on to the Second Question About the Soul, Whether It is Called Spirit

Chapter 37 [XXIII.]
Wide and Narrow Sense of the Word “Spirit.”

Chapter 38 [XXIV.]
Victor’s Chief Errors Again Pointed Out

Chapter 39
Concluding Admonition

A Treatise Against Two Letters Of The Pelagians

Book I

Chapter 1
Introduction: Address to Boniface

Chapter 2
Why Heretical Writings Must Be Answered

Chapter 3
Why He Addresses His Book to Boniface

Chapter 4 [II.]
The Calumny of Julian,—That the Catholics Teach that Free Will is Taken Away by Adam’s Sin

Chapter 5
Free Choice Did Not Perish With Adam ‘s Sin. What Freedom Did Perish

Chapter 6 [III.]
Grace is Not Given According to Merits

Chapter 7
He Concludes that He Does Not Deprive the Wicked of Free Will

Chapter 8 [IV.]
The Pelagians Demolish Free Will

Chapter 9 [V.]
Another Calumny of Julian,—That “It is Said that Marriage is Not Appointed by God.”

Chapter 10
The Third Calumny,—The Assertion that Conjugal Intercourse is Condemned

Chapter 11 [VI.]
The Purpose of the Pelagians in Praising the Innocence of Conjugal Intercourse

Chapter 12
The Fourth Calumny,—That the Saints of the Old Testament are Said to Be Not Free from Sins

Chapter 13 [VIII.]
The Fifth Calumny,—That It is Said that Paul and the Rest of the Apostles Were Polluted by Lust

Chapter 14
That the Apostle is Speaking in His Own Person and that of Others Who Are Under Grace, Not Still Under Law

Chapter 15 [IX.]
He Sins in Will Who is Only Deterred from Sinning by Fear

Chapter 16
How Sin Died, and How It Revived

Chapter 17 [X.]
”The Law is Spiritual, But I Am Carnal,” To Be Understood of Paul

Chapter 18
How the Apostle Said that He Did the Evil that He Would Not

Chapter 19
What It is to Accomplish What is Good

Chapter 20
In Me, that Is, in My Flesh

Chapter 21
No Condemnation in Christ Jesus

Chapter 22
Why the Passage Referred to Must Be Understood of a Man Established Under Grace

Chapter 23 [XI.]
What It is to Be Delivered from the Body of This Death

Chapter 24
He Concludes that the Apostle Spoke in His Own Person, and that of Those Who are Under Grace

Chapter 25 [XII.]
The Sixth Calumny,—That Augustin Asserts that Even Christ Was Not Free from Sins

Chapter 26 [XIII.]
The Seventh Calumny,—That Augustin Asserts that in Baptism All Sins are Not Remitted

Chapter 27
In What Sense Lust is Called Sin in the Regenerate

Chapter 28 [XIV.]
Many Without Crime, None Without Sin

Chapter 29 [XV.]
Julian Opposes the Faith of His Friends to the Opinions of Catholic Believers. First of All, of Free Will

Chapter 30
Secondly, of Marriage

Chapter 31
Thirdly, of Conjugal Intercourse

Chapter 32 [XVI.]
The Aprons Which Adam and Eve Wore

Chapter 33
The Shame of Nakedness

Chapter 34 [XVII.]
Whether There Could Be Sensual Appetite in Paradise Before the Fall

Chapter 35
Desire in Paradise Was Either None at All, or It Was Obedient to the Impulse of the Will

Chapter 36 [XVIII.]
Julian’s Fourth Objection, that Man is God’s Work, and is Not Constrained to Evil or Good by His Power

Chapter 37 [XIX.]
The Beginning of a Good Will is the Gift of Grace

Chapter 38 [XX.]
The Power of God’s Grace is Proved

Chapter 39 [XXI.]
Julian’s Fifth Objection Concerning the Saints of the Old Testament

Chapter 40 [XXII.]
The Sixth Objection, Concerning the Necessity of Grace for All, and Concerning the Baptism of Infants

Chapter 41 [XXIII.]
The Seventh Objection, of the Effect of Baptism

Chapter 42 [XXIV.]
He Rebuts the Conclusion of Julian’s Letter

Book II

Chapter 1
Introduction; The Pelagians Impeach Catholics as Manicheans

Chapter 2 [II.]
The Heresies of the Manicheans and Pelagians are Mutually Opposed, and are Alike Reprobated by the Catholic Church

Chapter 3
How Far the Manicheans and Pelagians are Joined in Error; How Far They are Separated

Chapter 4
The Two Contrary Errors

Chapter 5 [III.]
The Calumny of the Pelagians Against the Clergy of the Roman Church

Chapter 6 [IV.]
What Was Done in the Case of Coelestius and Zosimus

Chapter 7
He Suggests a Dilemma to Coelestius

Chapter 8
The Catholic Faith Concerning Infants

Chapter 9 [V.]
He Replies to the Calumnies of the Pelagians

Chapter 10
Why the Pelagians Falsely Accuse Catholics of Maintaining Fate Under the Name of Grace

Chapter 11 [VI.]
The Accusation of Fate is Thrown Back Upon the Adversaries

Chapter 12
What is Meant Under the Name of Fate

Chapter 13 [VII.]
He Repels the Calumny Concerning the Acceptance of Persons

Chapter 14
He Illustrates His Argument by an Example

Chapter 15
The Apostle Meets the Question by Leaving It Unsolved

Chapter 16
The Pelagians are Refuted by the Case of the Twin Infants Dying, the One After, and the Other Without, the Grace of Baptism

Chapter 17 [VIII.]
Even the Desire of an Imperfect Good is a Gift of Grace, Otherwise Grace Would Be Given According to Merits

Chapter 18
The Desire of Good is God’s Gift

Chapter 19 [IX.]
He Interprets the Scriptures Which the Pelagians Make Ill Use of

Chapter 20
God’s Agency is Needful Even in Man’s Doings

Chapter 21
Man Does No Good Thing Which God Does Not Cause Him to Do

Chapter 22 [X.]
According to Whose Purpose the Elect are Called

Chapter 23
Nothing is Commanded to Man Which is Not Given by God

Book III

Chapter 1 [I.]
Statement

Chapter 2 [II.]
The Misrepresentation of the Pelagians Concerning the Use of the Old Law

Chapter 3
Scriptural Confirmation of the Catholic Doctrine

Chapter 4 [III.]
Misrepresentation Concerning the Effect of Baptism

Chapter 5
Baptism Puts Away All Sins, But It Does Not at Once Heal All Infirmities

Chapter 6 [IV.]
The Calumny Concerning the Old Testament and the Righteous Men of Old

Chapter 7
The New Testament is More Ancient Than the Old; But It Was Subsequently Revealed

Chapter 8
All Righteous Men Before and After Abraham are Children of the Promise and of Grace

Chapter 9
Who are the Children of the Old Covenant

Chapter 10
The Old Law Also Given by God

Chapter 11
Distinction Between the Children of the Old and of the New Testaments

Chapter 12
The Old Testament is Properly One Thing—The Old Instrument Another

Chapter 13
Why One of the Covenants is Called Old, the Other New

Chapter 14 [V.]
Calumny Concerning the Righteousness of the Prophets and Apostles

Chapter 15
The Perfection of Apostles and Prophets

Chapter 16 [VI.]
Misrepresentation Concerning Sin in Christ

Chapter 17 [VII.]
Their Calumny About the Fulfilment of Precepts in the Life to Come

Chapter 18
Perfection of Righteousness and Full Security Was Not Even in Paul in This Life

Chapter 19
In What Sense the Righteousness of Man in This Life is Said to Be Perfect

Chapter 20
Why the Righteousness Which is of the Law is Valued Slightly by Paul

Chapter 21
That Righteousness is Never Perfected in This Life

Chapter 22
Nature of Human Righteousness and Perfection

Chapter 23
There is No True Righteousness Without the Faith of the Grace of Christ

Chapter 24 [VIII.]
There are Three Principal Heads in the Pelagian Heresy

Chapter 25 [IX.]
He Shows that the Opinion of the Catholics is the Mean Between that of the Manicheans and Pelagians, and Refutes Both

Chapter 26 [X.]
The Pelagians Still Strive After a Hiding-Place, by Introducing the Needless Question of the Origin of the Soul

Book IV

Chapter 1 [I.]
The Subterfuges of the Pelagians are Five

Chapter 2 [II.]
The Praise of the Creature

Chapter 3 [III.]
The Catholics Praise Nature, Marriage, Law, Free Will, and the Saints, in Such Wise as to Condemn as Well Pelagians as Manicheans

Chapter 4 [IV.]
Pelagians and Manicheans on the Praise of the Creature

Chapter 5
What is the Special Advantage in the Pelagian Opinions?

Chapter 6
Not Death Alone, But Sin Also Has Passed into Us by Means of Adam

Chapter 7
What is the Meaning of “In Whom All Have Sinned”?

Chapter 8
Death Passed Upon All by Sin

Chapter 9 [V.]
Of the Praise of Marriage

Chapter 10
Of the Praise of the Law

Chapter 11
The Pelagians Understand that the Law Itself is God’s Grace

Chapter 12 [VI.]
Of the Praise of Free Will

Chapter 13
God’s Purposes are Effects of Grace

Chapter 14
The Testimonies of Scripture in Favour of Grace

Chapter 15
From Such Scriptures Grace is Proved to Be Gratuitous and Effectual

Chapter 16
Why God Makes of Some Sheep, Others Not

Chapter 17 [VII.]
Of the Praise of the Saints

Chapter 18
The Opinion of the Saints Themselves About Themselves

Chapter 19
The Craft of the Pelagians

Chapter 20 [VIII.]
The Testimonies of the Ancients Against the Pelagians

Chapter 21
Pelagius, in Imitation of Cyprian, Wrote a Book of Testimonies

Chapter 22
Further References to Cyprian

Chapter 23
Further References to Cyprian

Chapter 24
The Dilemma Proposed to the Pelagians

Chapter 25 [IX.]
Cyprian’s Testimonies Concerning God’s Grace

Chapter 26
Further Appeals to Cyprian’s Teaching

Chapter 27 [X.]
Cyprian’s Testimonies Concerning the Imperfection of Our Own Righteousness

Chapter 28
Cyprian’s Orthodoxy Undoubted

Chapter 29 [XI.]
The Testimonies of Ambrose Against the Pelagians and First of All Concerning Original Sin

Chapter 30
The Testimonies of Ambrose Concerning God’s Grace

Chapter 31
The Testimonies of Ambrose on the Imperfection of Present Righteousness

Chapter 32 [XII.]
The Pelagian’s Heresy Arose Long After Ambrose

Chapter 33
Opposition of the Manichean and Catholic Dogmas

Chapter 34
The Calling Together of a Synod Not Always Necessary to the Condemnation of Heresies

A Treatise On Grace And Free Will

Letter I

Letter II

A Treatise On Grace And Free Will

Chapter 1 [I.]
The Occasion and Argument of This Work

Chapter 2 [II.]
He Proves the Existence of Free Will in Man from the Precepts Addressed to Him by God

Chapter 3
Sinners are Convicted When Attempting to Excuse Themselves by Blaming God, Because They Have Free Will

Chapter 4
The Divine Commands Which are Most Suited to the Will Itself Illustrate Its Freedom

Chapter 5
He Shows that Ignorance Affords No Such Excuse as Shall Free the Offender from Punishment; But that to Sin with Knowledge is a Graver Thing Than to Sin in Ignorance

Chapter 6 [IV.]
God’s Grace to Be Maintained Against the Pelagians; The Pelagian Heresy Not an Old One

Chapter 7
Grace is Necessary Along with Free Will to Lead a Good Life

Chapter 8
Conjugal Chastity is Itself the Gift of God

Chapter 9
Entering into Temptation. Prayer is a Proof of Grace

Chapter 10 [V.]
Free Will and God’s Grace are Simultaneously Commended

Chapter 11
Other Passages of Scripture Which the Pelagians Abuse

Chapter 12
He Proves Out of St. Paul that Grace is Not Given According to Men’s Merits

Chapter 13 [VI.]
The Grace of God is Not Given According to Merit, But Itself Makes All Good Desert

Chapter 14
Paul First Received Grace that He Might Win the Crown

Chapter 15
The Pelagians Profess that the Only Grace Which is Not Given According to Our Merits is that of the Forgiveness of Sins

Chapter 16 [VII.]
Paul Fought, But God Gave the Victory: He Ran, But God Showed Mercy

Chapter 17
The Faith that He Kept Was the Free Gift of God

Chapter 18
Faith Without Good Works is Not Sufficient for Salvation

Chapter 19 [VIII.]
How is Eternal Life Both a Reward for Service and a Free Gift of Grace?

Chapter 20
The Question Answered. Justification is Grace Simply and Entirely, Eternal Life is Reward and Grace

Chapter 21 [IX.]
Eternal Life is “Grace for Grace.”

Chapter 22 [X.]
Who is the Transgressor of the Law? The Oldness of Its Letter. The Newness of Its Spirit

Chapter 23 [XI.]
The Pelagians Maintain that the Law is the Grace of God Which Helps Us Not to Sin

Chapter 24 [XII.]
Who May Be Said to Wish to Establish Their Own Righteousness. “God’s Righteousness,” So Called, Which Man Has from God

Chapter 25 [XIII.]
As The Law is Not, So Neither is Our Nature Itself that Grace by Which We are Christians

Chapter 26
The Pelagians Contend that the Grace, Which is Neither the Law Nor Nature, Avails Only to the Remission of Past Sins, But Not to the Avoidance of Future Ones

Chapter 27 [XIV.]
Grace Effects the Fulfilment of the Law, the Deliverance of Nature, and the Suppression of Sin’s Dominion

Chapter 28
Faith is the Gift of God

Chapter 29
God is Able to Convert Opposing Wills, and to Take Away from the Heart Its Hardness

Chapter 30
The Grace by Which the Stony Heart is Removed is Not Preceded by Good Deserts, But by Evil Ones

Chapter 31 [XV.]
Free Will Has Its Function in the Heart’s Conversion; But Grace Too Has Its

Chapter 32 [XVI.]
In What Sense It is Rightly Said That, If We Like, We May Keep God’s Commandments

Chapter 33 [XVII.]
A Good Will May Be Small and Weak; An Ample Will, Great Love. Operating and Co-operating Grace

Chapter 34
The Apostle’s Eulogy of Love. Correction to Be Administered with Love

Chapter 35
Commendations of Love

Chapter 36
Love Commended by Our Lord Himself

Chapter 37 [XVIII.]
The Love Which Fulfils the Commandments is Not of Ourselves, But of God

Chapter 38
We Would Not Love God Unless He First Loved Us. The Apostles Chose Christ Because They Were Chosen; They Were Not Chosen Because They Chose Christ

Chapter 39
The Spirit of Fear a Great Gift of God

Chapter 40 [XIX.]
The Ignorance of the Pelagians in Maintaining that the Knowledge of the Law Comes from God, But that Love Comes from Ourselves

Chapter 41 [XX.]
The Wills of Men are So Much in the Power of God, that He Can Turn Them Whithersoever It Pleases Him

Chapter 42 [XXI]
God Does Whatsoever He Wills in the Hearts of Even Wicked Men

Chapter 43
God Operates on Men’s Hearts to Incline Their Wills Whithersoever He Pleases

Chapter 44 [XXII.]
Gratuitous Grace Exemplified in Infants

Chapter 45 [XXIII]
The Reason Why One Person is Assisted by Grace, and Another is Not Helped, Must Be Referred to the Secret Judgments of God

Chapter 46 [XXIV.]
Understanding and Wisdom Must Be Sought from God

A Treatise On Rebuke And Grace

Chapter 1 [I.]
Introductory

Chapter 2
The Catholic Faith Concerning Law, Grace, and Free Will

Chapter 3 [II.]
What the Grace of God Through Jesus Christ is

Chapter 4
The Children of God are Led by the Spirit of God

Chapter 5 [III.]
Rebuke Must Not Be Neglected

Chapter 6 [IV.]
Objections to the Use of Rebuke

Chapter 7 [V.]
The Necessity and Advantage of Rebuke

Chapter 8
Further Replies to Those Who Object to Rebuke

Chapter 9 [VI]
Why They May Justly Be Rebuked Who Do Not Obey God, Although They Have Not Yet Received the Grace of Obedience

Chapter 10
All Perseverance is God’s Gift

Chapter 11 [VII.]
They Who Have Not Received the Gift of Perseverance, and Have Relapsed into Mortal Sin and Have Died Therein, Must Righteously Be Condemned

Chapter 12
They Who Have Not Received Perseverance are Not Distinguished from the Mass of Those that are Lost

Chapter 13
Election is of Grace, Not of Merit

Chapter 14
None of the Elect and Predestinated Can Perish

Chapter 15
Perseverance is Given to the End

Chapter 16
Whosoever Do Not Persevere are Not Distinguished from the Mass of Perdition by Predestination

Chapter 17 [VIII.]
Why Perseverance Should Be Given to One and Not Another is Inscrutable

Chapter 18
Some Instances of God’s Amazing Judgments

Chapter 19
God’s Ways Past Finding Out

Chapter 20 [IX.]
Some are Children of God According to Grace Temporally Received, Some According to God’s Eternal Foreknowledge

Chapter 21
Who May Be Understood as Given to Christ

Chapter 22
True Children of God are True Disciples of Christ

Chapter 23
Those Who are Called According to the Purpose Alone are Predestinated

Chapter 24
Even the Sins of the Elect are Turned by God to Their Advantage

Chapter 25
Therefore Rebuke is to Be Used

Chapter 26 [X.]
Whether Adam Received the Gift of Perseverance

Chapter 27
The Answer

Chapter 28
The First Man Himself Also Might Have Stood by His Free Will

Chapter 29 [XI.]
Distinction Between the Grace Given Before and After the Fall

Chapter 30
The Incarnation of the Word

Chapter 31
The First Man Had Received the Grace Necessary for His Perseverance, But Its Exercise Was Left in His Free Choice

Chapter 32
The Gifts of Grace Conferred on Adam in Creation

Chapter 33 [XII.]
What is the Difference Between the Ability Not to Sin, to Die, and Forsake Good, and the Inability to Sin, to Die, and to Forsake Good?

Chapter 34
The Aid Without Which a Thing Does Not Come to Pass, and the Aid with Which a Thing Comes to Pass

Chapter 35
There is a Greater Freedom Now in the Saints Than There Was Before in Adam

Chapter 36
God Not Only Foreknows that Men Will Be Good, But Himself Makes Them So

Chapter 37
To a Sound Will is Committed the Power of Persevering or of Not Persevering

Chapter 38
What is the Nature of the Gift of Perseverance that is Now Given to the Saints

Chapter 39 [XIII.]
The Number of the Predestinated is Certain and Defined

Chapter 40
No One is Certain and Secure of His Own Predestination and Salvation

Chapter 41
Even in Judgment God’s Mercy Will Be Necessary to Us

Chapter 42
The Reprobate are to Be Punished for Merits of a Different Kind

Chapter 43 [XIV.]
Rebuke and Grace Do Not Set Aside One Another

Chapter 44
In What Way God Wills All Men to Be Saved

Chapter 45
Scriptural Instances Wherein It is Proved that God Has Men’s Wills More in His Power Than They Themselves Have

Chapter 46 [XV.]
Rebuke Must Be Varied According to the Variety of Faults. There is No Punishment in the Church Greater Than Excommunication

Chapter 47
Another Interpretation of the Apostolic Passage, “Who Will Have All Men to Be Saved.”

Chapter 48
The Purpose of Rebuke

Chapter 49
Conclusion

A Treatise On The Predestination Of The Saints

Chapter 1 [I.]
Introduction

Chapter 2
To What Extent the Massilians Withdraw from the Pelagians

Chapter 3 [II.]
Even the Beginning of Faith is of God’s Gift

Chapter 4
Continuation of the Preceding

Chapter 5
To Believe is to Think with Assent

Chapter 6
Presumption and Arrogance to Be Avoided

Chapter 7 [III.]
Augustin Confesses that He Had Formerly Been in Error Concerning the Grace of God

Chapter 8 [IV.]
What Augustin Wrote to Simplicianus, the Successor of Ambrose, Bishop of Milan

Chapter 9 [V.]
The Purpose of the Apostle in These Words

Chapter 10
It is God’s Grace Which Specially Distinguishes One Man from Another

Chapter 11 [VI.]
That Some Men are Elected is of God’s Mercy

Chapter 12 [VII.]
Why the Apostle Said that We are Justified by Faith and Not by Works

Chapter 13 [VIII.]
The Effect of Divine Grace

Chapter 14
Why the Father Does Not Teach All that They May Come to Christ

Chapter 15
It is Believers that are Taught of God

Chapter 16
Why the Gift of Faith is Not Given to All

Chapter 17 [IX.]
His Argument in His Letter Against Porphyry, as to Why the Gospel Came So Late into the World

Chapter 18
The Preceding Argument Applied to the Present Time

Chapter 19 [X]
In What Respects Predestination and Grace Differ

Chapter 20
Did God Promise the Good Works of the Nations and Not Their Faith, to Abraham?

Chapter 21
It is to Be Wondered at that Men Should Rather Trust to Their Own Weakness Than to God’s Strength

Chapter 22
God’s Promise is Sure

Chapter 23 [XII.]
Remarkable Illustrations of Grace and Predestination in Infants, and in Christ

Chapter 24
That No One is Judged According to What He Would Have Done If He Had Lived Longer

Chapter 25 [XIII.]
Possibly the Baptized Infants Would Have Repented If They Had Lived, and the Unbaptized Not

Chapter 26 [XIV]
Reference to Cyprian’s Treatise “On the Mortality.”

Chapter 27
The Book of Wisdom Obtains in the Church the Authority of Canonical Scripture

Chapter 28
Cyprian’s Treatise “On the Mortality.”

Chapter 29
God’s Dealing Does Not Depend Upon Any Contingent Merits of Men

Chapter 30 [XV.]
The Most Illustrious Instance of Predestination is Christ Jesus

Chapter 31
Christ Predestinated to Be the Son of God

Chapter 32 [XVI.]
The Twofold Calling

Chapter 33
It is in the Power of Evil Men to Sin; But to Do This or That by Means of that Wickedness is in God’s Power Alone

Chapter 34 [XVII.]
The Special Calling of the Elect is Not Because They Have Believed, But in Order that They May Believe

Chapter 35 [XVIII.]
Election is for the Purpose of Holiness

Chapter 36
God Chose the Righteous; Not Those Whom He Foresaw as Being of Themselves, But Those Whom He Predestinated for the Purpose of Making So

Chapter 37
We Were Elected and Predestinated, Not Because We Were Going to Be Holy, But in Order that We Might Be So

Chapter 38 [XIX.]
What is the View of the Pelagians, and What of the Semi-Pelagians, Concerning Predestination

Chapter 39
The Beginning of Faith is God’s Gift

Chapter 40 [XX.]
Apostolic Testimony to the Beginning of Faith Being God’s Gift

Chapter 41
Further Apostolic Testimonies

Chapter 42
Old Testament Testimonies

Chapter 43 [XXI.]
Conclusion

A Treatise On The Gift Of Perseverance

Chapter 1 [I.]
Of the Nature of the Perseverance Here Discoursed of

Chapter 2 [II.]
Faith is the Beginning of a Christian Man. Martyrdom for Christ’s Sake is His Best Ending

Chapter 3
God is Besought for It, Because It is His Gift

Chapter 4
Three Leading Points of the Pelagian Doctrine

Chapter 5
The Second Petition in the Lord’s Prayer

Chapter 6 [III.]
The Third Petition. How Heaven and Earth are Understood in the Lord’s Prayer

Chapter 7 [IV.]
The Fourth Petition

Chapter 8 [V.]
The Fifth Petition. It is an Error of the Pelagians that the Righteous are Free from Sin

Chapter 9
When Perseverance is Granted to a Person, He Cannot But Persevere

Chapter 10 [VI.]
The Gift of Perseverance Can Be Obtained by Prayer

Chapter 11
Effect of Prayer for Perseverance

Chapter 12
Of His Own Will a Man Forsakes God, So that He is Deservedly Forsaken of Him

Chapter 13 [VII.]
Temptation the Condition of Man

Chapter 14
It is God’s Grace Both that Man Comes to Him, and that Man Does Not Depart from Him

Chapter 15
Why God Willed that He Should Be Asked for that Which He Might Give Without Prayer

Chapter 16 [VIII.]
Why is Not Grace Given According to Merit?

Chapter 17
The Difficulty of the Distinction Made in the Choice of One and the Rejection of Another

Chapter 18
But Why Should One Be Punished More Than Another?

Chapter 19
Why Does God Mingle Those Who Will Persevere with Those Who Will Not?

Chapter 20
Ambrose on God’s Control Over Men’s Thoughts

Chapter 21 [IX.]
Instances of the Unsearchable Judgments of God

Chapter 22
It is an Absurdity to Say that the Dead Will Be Judged for Sins Which They Would Have Committed If They Had Lived

Chapter 23
Why for the People of Tyre and Sidon, Who Would Have Believed, the Miracles Were Not Done Which Were Done in Other Places Which Did Not Believe

Chapter 24 [X.]
It May Be Objected that The People of Tyre and Sidon Might, If They Had Heard, Have Believed, and Have Subsequently Lapsed from Their Faith

Chapter 25 [XI.]
God’s Ways, Both in Mercy and Judgment, Past Finding Out

Chapter 26
The Manicheans Do Not Receive All the Books of the Old Testament, and of the New Only Those that They Choose

Chapter 27
Reference to the “Retractations.”

Chapter 28 [XII.]
God’s Goodness and Righteousness Shown in All

Chapter 29
God’s True Grace Could Be Defended Even If There Were No Original Sin, as Pelagius Maintains

Chapter 30
Augustin Claims the Right to Grow in Knowledge

Chapter 31
Infants are Not Judged According to that Which They are Foreknown as Likely to Do If They Should Live

Chapter 32 [XIII.]
The Inscrutability of God’s Free Purposes

Chapter 33
God Gives Both Initiatory and Persevering Grace According to His Own Will

Chapter 34 [XIV.]
The Doctrine of Predestination Not Opposed to the Advantage of Preaching

Chapter 35
What Predestination is

Chapter 36
The Preaching of the Gospel and the Preaching of Predestination the Two Parts of One Message

Chapter 37
Ears to Hear are a Willingness to Obey

Chapter 38 [XV.]
Against the Preaching of Predestination the Same Objections May Be Alleged as Against Predestination

Chapter 39 [XVI]
Prayer and Exhortation

Chapter 40
When the Truth Must Be Spoken, When Kept Back

Chapter 41
Predestination Defined as Only God’s Disposing of Events in His Foreknowledge

Chapter 42
The Adversaries Cannot Deny Predestination to Those Gifts of Grace Which They Themselves Acknowledge, and Their Exhortations are Not Hindered by This Predestination Nevertheless

Chapter 43
Further Development of the Foregoing Argument

Chapter 44
Exhortation to Wisdom, Though Wisdom is God’s Gift

Chapter 45
Exhortation to Other Gifts of God in Like Manner

Chapter 46
A Man Who Does Not Persevere Fails by His Own Fault

Chapter 47
Predestination is Sometimes Signified Under the Name of Foreknowledge

Chapter 48 [XIX.]
Practice of Cyprian and Ambrose

Chapter 49
Further References to Cyprian and Ambrose

Chapter 50
Obedience Not Discouraged by Preaching God’s Gifts

Chapter 51 [XX.]
Predestination Must Be Preached

Chapter 52
Previous Writings Anticipatively Refuted the Pelagian Heresy

Chapter 53
Augustin’s “Confessions.”

Chapter 54 [XXI.]
Beginning and End of Faith is of God

Chapter 55
Testimony of His Previous Writings and Letters

Chapter 56
God Gives Means as Well as End

Chapter 57 [XXII.]
How Predestination Must Be Preached So as Not to Give Offence

Chapter 58
The Doctrine to Be Applied with Discrimination

Chapter 59
Offence to Be Avoided

Chapter 60
The Application to the Church in General

Chapter 61
Use of the Third Person Rather Than the Second

Chapter 62
Prayer to Be Inculcated, Nevertheless

Chapter 63 [XXIII.]
The Testimony of the Whole Church in Her Prayers

Chapter 64
In What Sense the Holy Spirit Solicits for Us, Crying, Abba, Father

Chapter 65
The Church’s Prayers Imply the Church’s Faith

Chapter 66 [XXIV.]
Recapitulation and Exhortation

Chapter 67
The Most Eminent Instance of Predestination is Christ Jesus

Chapter 68
Conclusion








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