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Fathers Of The Church
Catholic Edition

St. Augustine: City of God and Christian Doctrine

ST. AUGUSTINE’S CITY OF GOD AND CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE

NICENE AND POST-NICENE CHURCH FATHERS: SERIES 1: VOLUME II ST. AUGUSTIN’S: CITY OF GOD and CHRISTIAN DOCTRINE.

A SELECT LIBRARY OF THE NICENE AND POST-NICENE FATHERS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH.




The City of God

On Christian Doctrine






The City of God

Book I

Preface, Explaining His Design in Undertaking This Work

Chapter 1
Of the Adversaries of the Name of Christ, Whom the Barbarians for Christ’s Sake Spared When They Stormed the City

Chapter 2
That It is Quite Contrary to the Usage of War, that the Victors Should Spare the Vanquished for the Sake of Their Gods

Chapter 3
That the Romans Did Not Show Their Usual Sagacity When They Trusted that They Would Be Benefited by the Gods Who Had Been Unable to Defend Troy

Chapter 4
Of the Asylum of Juno in Troy, Which Saved No One from the Greeks; And of the Churches of the Apostles, Which Protected from the Barbarians All Who Fled to Them

Chapter 5
Caesar’s Statement Regarding the Universal Custom of an Enemy When Sacking a City

Chapter 6
That Not Even the Romans, When They Took Cities, Spared the Conquered in Their Temples

Chapter 7
That the Cruelties Which Occurred in the Sack of Rome Were in Accordance with the Custom of War, Whereas the Acts of Clemency Resulted from the Influence of Christ’s Name

Chapter 8
Of the Advantages and Disadvantages Which Often Indiscriminately Accrue to Good and Wicked Men

Chapter 9
Of the Reasons for Administering Correction to Bad and Good Together

Chapter 10
That the Saints Lose Nothing in Losing Temporal Goods

Chapter 11
Of the End of This Life, Whether It is Material that It Be Long Delayed

Chapter 12
Of the Burial of the Dead: that the Denial of It to Christians Does Them No Injury

Chapter 13
Reasons for Burying the Bodies of the Saints

Chapter 14
Of the Captivity of the Saints, and that Divine Consolation Never Failed Them Therein

Chapter 15
Of Regulus, in Whom We Have an Example of the Voluntary Endurance of Captivity for the Sake of Religion; Which Yet Did Not Profit Him, Though He Was a Worshipper of the Gods

Chapter 16
Of the Violation of the Consecrated and Other Christian Virgins, to Which They Were Subjected in Captivity and to Which Their Own Will Gave No Consent; And Whether This Contaminated Their Souls

Chapter 17
Of Suicide Committed Through Fear of Punishment or Dishonor

Chapter 18
Of the Violence Which May Be Done to the Body by Another’s Lust, While the Mind Remains Inviolate

Chapter 19
Of Lucretia, Who Put an End to Her Life Because of the Outrage Done Her

Chapter 20
That Christians Have No Authority for Committing Suicide in Any Circumstances Whatever

Chapter 21
Of the Cases in Which We May Put Men to Death Without Incurring the Guilt of Murder

Chapter 22
That Suicide Can Never Be Prompted by Magnanimity

Chapter 23
What We are to Think of the Example of Cato, Who Slew Himself Because Unable to Endure Caesar’s Victory

Chapter 24
That in that Virtue in Which Regulus Excels Cato, Christians are Pre-Eminently Distinguished

Chapter 25
That We Should Not Endeavor By Sin to Obviate Sin

Chapter 26
That in Certain Peculiar Cases the Examples of the Saints are Not to Be Followed

Chapter 27
Whether Voluntary Death Should Be Sought in Order to Avoid Sin

Chapter 28
By What Judgment of God the Enemy Was Permitted to Indulge His Lust on the Bodies of Continent Christians

Chapter 29
What the Servants of Christ Should Say in Reply to the Unbelievers Who Cast in Their Teeth that Christ Did Not Rescue Them from the Fury of Their Enemies

Chapter 30
That Those Who Complain of Christianity Really Desire to Live Without Restraint in Shameful Luxury

Chapter 31
By What Steps the Passion for Governing Increased Among the Romans

Chapter 32
Of the Establishment of Scenic Entertainments

Chapter 33
That the Overthrow of Rome Has Not Corrected the Vices of the Romans

Chapter 34
Of God’s Clemency in Moderating the Ruin of the City

Chapter 35
Of the Sons of the Church Who are Hidden Among the Wicked, and of False Christians Within the Church

Chapter 36
What Subjects are to Be Handled in the Following Discourse

Book II

Chapter 1
Of the Limits Which Must Be Put to the Necessity of Replying to an Adversary

Chapter 2
Recapitulation of the Contents of the First Book

Chapter 3
That We Need Only to Read History in Order to See What Calamities the Romans Suffered Before the Religion of Christ Began to Compete with the Worship of the Gods

Chapter 4
That the Worshippers of the Gods Never Received from Them Any Healthy Moral Precepts, and that in Celebrating Their Worship All Sorts of Impurities Were Practiced

Chapter 5
Of the Obscenities Practiced in Honor of the Mother of the Gods

Chapter 6
That the Gods of the Pagans Never Inculcated Holiness of Life

Chapter 7
That the Suggestions of Philosophers are Precluded from Having Any Moral Effect, Because They Have Not the Authority Which Belongs to Divine Instruction, and Because Man’s Natural Bias to Evil Induces Him Rather to Follow the Examples of the Gods Than to Obey the Precepts of Men

Chapter 8
That the Theatrical Exhibitions Publishing the Shameful Actions of the Gods, Propitiated Rather Than Offended Them

Chapter 9
That the Poetical License Which the Greeks, in Obedience to Their Gods, Allowed, Was Restrained by the Ancient Romans

Chapter 10
That the Devils, in Suffering Either False or True Crimes to Be Laid to Their Charge, Meant to Do Men a Mischief

Chapter 11
That the Greeks Admitted Players to Offices of State, on the Ground that Men Who Pleased the Gods Should Not Be Contemptuously Treated by Their Fellows

Chapter 12
That the Romans, by Refusing to the Poets the Same License in Respect of Men Which They Allowed Them in the Case of the Gods, Showed a More Delicate Sensitiveness Regarding Themselves than Regarding the Gods

Chapter 13
That the Romans Should Have Understood that Gods Who Desired to Be Worshipped in Licentious Entertainments Were Unworthy of Divine Honor

Chapter 14
That Plato, Who Excluded Poets from a Well-Ordered City, Was Better Than These Gods Who Desire to Be Honoured by Theatrical Plays

Chapter 15
That It Was Vanity, Not Reason, Which Created Some of the Roman Gods

Chapter 16
That If the Gods Had Really Possessed Any Regard for Righteousness, the Romans Should Have Received Good Laws from Them, Instead of Having to Borrow Them from Other Nations

Chapter 17
Of the Rape of the Sabine Women, and Other Iniquities Perpetrated in Rome’s Palmiest Days

Chapter 18
What the History of Sallust Reveals Regarding the Life of the Romans, Either When Straitened by Anxiety or Relaxed in Security

Chapter 19
Of the Corruption Which Had Grown Upon the Roman Republic Before Christ Abolished the Worship of the Gods

Chapter 20
Of the Kind of Happiness and Life Truly Delighted in by Those Who Inveigh Against the Christian Religion

Chapter 21
Cicero’s Opinion of the Roman Republic

Chapter 22
That the Roman Gods Never Took Any Steps to Prevent the Republic from Being Ruined by Immorality

Chapter 23
That the Vicissitudes of This Life are Dependent Not on the Favor or Hostility of Demons, But on the Will of the True God

Chapter 24
Of the Deeds of Sylla, in Which the Demons Boasted that He Had Their Help

Chapter 25
How Powerfully the Evil Spirits Incite Men to Wicked Actions, by Giving Them the Quasi-Divine Authority of Their Example

Chapter 26
That the Demons Gave in Secret Certain Obscure Instructions in Morals, While in Public Their Own Solemnities Inculcated All Wickedness

Chapter 27
That the Obscenities of Those Plays Which the Romans Consecrated in Order to Propitiate Their Gods, Contributed Largely to the Overthrow of Public Order

Chapter 28
That the Christian Religion is Health-Giving

Chapter 29
An Exhortation to the Romans to Renounce Paganism

Book III

Chapter 1
Of the Ills Which Alone the Wicked Fear, and Which the World Continually Suffered, Even When the Gods Were Worshipped

Chapter 2
Whether the Gods, Whom the Greeks and Romans Worshipped in Common, Were Justified in Permitting the Destruction of Ilium

Chapter 3
That the Gods Could Not Be Offended by the Adultery of Paris, This Crime Being So Common Among Themselves

Chapter 4
Of Varro’s Opinion, that It is Useful for Men to Feign Themselves the Offspring of the Gods

Chapter 5
That It is Not Credible that the Gods Should Have Punished the Adultery of Paris, Seeing They Showed No Indignation at the Adultery of the Mother of Romulus

Chapter 6
That the Gods Exacted No Penalty for the Fratricidal Act of Romulus

Chapter 7
Of the Destruction of Ilium by Fimbria, a Lieutenant of Marius

Chapter 8
Whether Rome Ought to Have Been Entrusted to the Trojan Gods

Chapter 9
Whether It is Credible that the Peace During the Reign of Numa Was Brought About by the Gods

Chapter 10
Whether It Was Desirable that The Roman Empire Should Be Increased by Such a Furious Succession of Wars, When It Might Have Been Quiet and Safe by Following in the Peaceful Ways of Numa

Chapter 11
Of the Statue of Apollo at Cumae, Whose Tears are Supposed to Have Portended Disaster to the Greeks, Whom the God Was Unable to Succor

Chapter 12
That the Romans Added a Vast Number of Gods to Those Introduced by Numa, and that Their Numbers Helped Them Not at All

Chapter 13
By What Right or Agreement The Romans Obtained Their First Wives

Chapter 14
Of the Wickedness of the War Waged by the Romans Against the Albans, and of the Victories Won by the Lust of Power

Chapter 15
What Manner of Life and Death the Roman Kings Had

Chapter 16
Of the First Roman Consuls, the One of Whom Drove the Other from the Country, and Shortly After Perished at Rome by the Hand of a Wounded Enemy, and So Ended a Career of Unnatural Murders

Chapter 17
Of the Disasters Which Vexed the Roman Republic After the Inauguration of the Consulship, and of the Non-Intervention of the Gods of Rome

Chapter 18
The Disasters Suffered by the Romans in the Punic Wars, Which Were Not Mitigated by the Protection of the Gods

Chapter 19
Of the Calamity of the Second Punic War, Which Consumed the Strength of Both Parties

Chapter 20
Of the Destruction of the Saguntines, Who Received No Help from the Roman Gods, Though Perishing on Account of Their Fidelity to Rome

Chapter 21
Of the Ingratitude of Rome to Scipio, Its Deliverer, and of Its Manners During the Period Which Sallust Describes as the Best

Chapter 22
Of the Edict of Mithridates, Commanding that All Roman Citizens Found in Asia Should Be Slain

Chapter 23
Of the Internal Disasters Which Vexed the Roman Republic, and Followed a Portentous Madness Which Seized All the Domestic Animals

Chapter 24
Of the Civil Dissension Occasioned by the Sedition of the Gracchi

Chapter 25
Of the Temple of Concord, Which Was Erected by a Decree of the Senate on the Scene of These Seditions and Massacres

Chapter 26
Of the Various Kinds of Wars Which Followed the Building of the Temple of Concord

Chapter 27
Of the Civil War Between Marius and Sylla

Chapter 28
Of the Victory of Sylla, the Avenger of the Cruelties of Marius

Chapter 29
A Comparison of the Disasters Which Rome Experienced During the Gothic and Gallic Invasions, with Those Occasioned by the Authors of the Civil Wars

Chapter 30
Of the Connection of the Wars Which with Great Severity and Frequency Followed One Another Before the Advent of Christ

Chapter 31
That It is Effrontery to Impute the Present Troubles to Christ and the Prohibition of Polytheistic Worship Since Even When the Gods Were Worshipped Such Calamities Befell the People

Book IV

Chapter 1
Of the Things Which Have Been Discussed in the First Book

Chapter 2
Of Those Things Which are Contained in Books Second and Third

Chapter 3
Whether the Great Extent of the Empire, Which Has Been Acquired Only by Wars, is to Be Reckoned Among the Good Things Either of the Wise or the Happy

Chapter 4
How Like Kingdoms Without Justice are to Robberies

Chapter 5
Of the Runaway Gladiators Whose Power Became Like that of Royal Dignity

Chapter 6
Concerning the Covetousness of Ninus, Who Was the First Who Made War on His Neighbors, that He Might Rule More Widely

Chapter 7
Whether Earthly Kingdoms in Their Rise and Fall Have Been Either Aided or Deserted by the Help of the Gods

Chapter 8
Which of the Gods Can the Romans Suppose Presided Over the Increase and Preservation of Their Empire, When They Have Believed that Even the Care of Single Things Could Scarcely Be Committed to Single Gods

Chapter 9
Whether the Great Extent and Long Duration of the Roman Empire Should Be Ascribed to Jove, Whom His Worshippers Believe to Be the Chief God

Chapter 10
What Opinions Those Have Followed Who Have Set Divers Gods Over Divers Parts of the World

Chapter 11
Concerning the Many Gods Whom the Pagan Doctors Defend as Being One and the Same Jove

Chapter 12
Concerning the Opinion of Those Who Have Thought that God is the Soul of the World, and the World is the Body of God

Chapter 13
Concerning Those Who Assert that Only Rational Animals are Parts of the One God

Chapter 14
The Enlargement of Kingdoms is Unsuitably Ascribed to Jove; For If, as They Will Have It, Victoria is a Goddess, She Alone Would Suffice for This Business

Chapter 15
Whether It is Suitable for Good Men to Wish to Rule More Widely

Chapter 16
What Was the Reason Why the Romans, in Detailing Separate Gods for All Things and All Movements of the Mind, Chose to Have the Temple of Quiet Outside the Gates

Chapter 17
Whether, If the Highest Power Belongs to Jove, Victoria Also Ought to Be Worshipped

Chapter 18
With What Reason They Who Think Felicity and Fortune Goddesses Have Distinguished Them

Chapter 19
Concerning Fortuna Muliebris

Chapter 20
Concerning Virtue and Faith, Which the Pagans Have Honored with Temples and Sacred Rites, Passing by Other Good Qualities, Which Ought Likewise to Have Been Worshipped, If Deity Was Rightly Attributed to These

Chapter 21
That Although Not Understanding Them to Be the Gifts of God, They Ought at Least to Have Been Content with Virtue and Felicity

Chapter 22
Concerning the Knowledge of the Worship Due to the Gods, Which Varro Glories in Having Himself Conferred on the Romans

Chapter 23
Concerning Felicity, Whom the Romans, Who Venerate Many Gods, for a Long Time Did Not Worship with Divine Honor, Though She Alone Would Have Sufficed Instead of All

Chapter 24
The Reasons by Which the Pagans Attempt to Defend Their Worshipping Among the Gods the Divine Gifts Themselves

Chapter 25
Concerning the One God Only to Be Worshipped, Who, Although His Name is Unknown, is Yet Deemed to Be the Giver of Felicity

Chapter 26
Of the Scenic Plays, the Celebration of Which the Gods Have Exacted from Their Worshippers

Chapter 27
Concerning the Three Kinds of Gods About Which the Pontiff Scaevola Has Discoursed

Chapter 28
Whether the Worship of the Gods Has Been of Service to the Romans in Obtaining and Extending the Empire

Chapter 29
Of the Falsity of the Augury by Which the Strength and Stability of the Roman Empire Was Considered to Be Indicated

Chapter 30
What Kind of Things Even Their Worshippers Have Owned They Have Thought About the Gods of the Nations

Chapter 31
Concerning the Opinions of Varro, Who, While Reprobating the Popular Belief, Thought that Their Worship Should Be Confined to One God, Though He Was Unable to Discover the True God

Chapter 32
In What Interest the Princes of the Nations Wished False Religions to Continue Among the People Subject to Them

Chapter 33
That the Times of All Kings and Kingdoms are Ordained by the Judgment and Power of the True God

Chapter 34
Concerning the Kingdom of the Jews, Which Was Founded by the One and True God, and Preserved by Him as Long as They Remained in the True Religion

Book V

Preface

Chapter 1
That the Cause of the Roman Empire, and of All Kingdoms, is Neither Fortuitous Nor Consists in the Position of the Stars

Chapter 2
On the Difference in the Health of Twins

Chapter 3
Concerning the Arguments Which Nigidius the Mathematician Drew from the Potter’s Wheel, in the Question About the Birth of Twins

Chapter 4
Concerning the Twins Esau and Jacob, Who Were Very Unlike Each Other Both in Their Character and Actions

Chapter 5
In What Manner the Mathematicians are Convicted of Professing a Vain Science

Chapter 6
Concerning Twins of Different Sexes

Chapter 7
Concerning the Choosing of a Day for Marriage, or for Planting, or Sowing

Chapter 8
Concerning Those Who Call by the Name of Fate, Not the Position of the Stars, But the Connection of Causes Which Depends on the Will of God

Chapter 9
Concerning the Foreknowledge of God and the Free Will of Man, in Opposition to the Definition of Cicero

Chapter 10
Whether Our Wills are Ruled by Necessity

Chapter 11
Concerning the Universal Providence of God in the Laws of Which All Things are Comprehended

Chapter 12
By What Virtues the Ancient Romans Merited that the True God, Although They Did Not Worship Him, Should Enlarge Their Empire

Chapter 13
Concerning the Love of Praise, Which, Though It is a Vice, is Reckoned a Virtue, Because by It Greater Vice is Restrained

Chapter 14
Concerning the Eradication of the Love of Human Praise, Because All the Glory of the Righteous is in God

Chapter 15
Concerning the Temporal Reward Which God Granted to the Virtues of the Romans

Chapter 16
Concerning the Reward of the Holy Citizens of the Celestial City, to Whom the Example of the Virtues of the Romans are Useful

Chapter 17
To What Profit the Romans Carried on Wars, and How Much They Contributed to the Well-Being of Those Whom They Conquered

Chapter 18
How Far Christians Ought to Be from Boasting, If They Have Done Anything for the Love of the Eternal Country, When the Romans Did Such Great Things for Human Glory and a Terrestrial City

Chapter 19
Concerning the Difference Between True Glory and the Desire of Domination

Chapter 20
That It is as Shameful for the Virtues to Serve Human Glory as Bodily Pleasure

Chapter 21
That the Roman Dominion Was Granted by Him from Whom is All Power, and by Whose Providence All Things are Ruled

Chapter 22
The Durations and Issues of War Depend on the Will of God

Chapter 23
Concerning the War in Which Radagaisus, King of the Goths, a Worshipper of Demons, Was Conquered in One Day, with All His Mighty Forces

Chapter 24
What Was the Happiness of the Christian Emperors, and How Far It Was True Happiness

Chapter 25
Concerning the Prosperity Which God Granted to the Christian Emperor Constantine

Chapter 26
On the Faith and Piety of Theodosius Augustus

Book VI

Preface

Chapter 1
Of Those Who Maintain that They Worship the Gods Not for the Sake of Temporal But Eternal Advantages

Chapter 2
What We are to Believe that Varro Thought Concerning the Gods of the Nations, Whose Various Kinds and Sacred Rites He Has Shown to Be Such that He Would Have Acted More Reverently Towards Them Had He Been Altogether Silent Concerning Them

Chapter 3
Varro’s Distribution of His Book Which He Composed Concerning the Antiquities of Human and Divine Things

Chapter 4
That from the Disputation of Varro, It Follows that the Worshippers of the Gods Regard Human Things as More Ancient Than Divine Things

Chapter 5
Concerning the Three Kinds of Theology According to Varro, Namely, One Fabulous, the Other Natural, the Third Civil

Chapter 6
Concerning the Mythic, that Is, the Fabulous, Theology, and the Civil, Against Varro

Chapter 7
Concerning the Likeness and Agreement of the Fabulous and Civil Theologies

Chapter 8
Concerning the Interpretations, Consisting of Natural Explanations, Which the Pagan Teachers Attempt to Show for Their Gods

Chapter 9
Concerning the Special Offices of the Gods

Chapter 10
Concerning the Liberty of Seneca, Who More Vehemently Censured the Civil Theology Than Varro Did the Fabulous

Chapter 11
What Seneca Thought Concerning the Jews

Chapter 12
That When Once the Vanity of the Gods of the Nations Has Been Exposed, It Cannot Be Doubted that They are Unable to Bestow Eternal Life on Any One, When They Cannot Afford Help Even with Respect to the Things Of this Temporal Life

Book VII

Preface

Chapter 1
Whether, Since It is Evident that Deity is Not to Be Found in the Civil Theology, We are to Believe that It is to Be Found in the Select Gods

Chapter 2
Who are the Select Gods, and Whether They are Held to Be Exempt from the Offices of the Commoner Gods

Chapter 3
How There is No Reason Which Can Be Shown for the Selection of Certain Gods, When the Administration of More Exalted Offices is Assigned to Many Inferior Gods

Chapter 4
The Inferior Gods, Whose Names are Not Associated with Infamy, Have Been Better Dealt with Than the Select Gods, Whose Infamies are Celebrated

Chapter 5
Concerning the More Secret Doctrine of the Pagans, and Concerning the Physical Interpretations

Chapter 6
Concerning the Opinion of Varro, that God is the Soul of the World, Which Nevertheless, in Its Various Parts, Has Many Souls Whose Nature is Divine

Chapter 7
Whether It is Reasonable to Separate Janus and Terminus as Two Distinct Deities

Chapter 8
For What Reason the Worshippers of Janus Have Made His Image with Two Faces, When They Would Sometimes Have It Be Seen with Four

Chapter 9
Concerning the Power of Jupiter, and a Comparison of Jupiter with Janus

Chapter 10
Whether the Distinction Between Janus and Jupiter is a Proper One

Chapter 11
Concerning the Surnames of Jupiter, Which are Referred Not to Many Gods, But to One and the Same God

Chapter 12
That Jupiter is Also Called Pecunia

Chapter 13
That When It is Expounded What Saturn Is, What Genius Is, It Comes to This, that Both of Them are Shown to Be Jupiter

Chapter 14
Concerning the Offices of Mercury and Mars

Chapter 15
Concerning Certain Stars Which the Pagans Have Called by the Names of Their Gods

Chapter 16
Concerning Apollo and Diana, and the Other Select Gods Whom They Would Have to Be Parts of the World

Chapter 17
That Even Varro Himself Pronounced His Own Opinions Regarding the Gods Ambiguous

Chapter 18
A More Credible Cause of the Rise of Pagan Error

Chapter 19
Concerning the Interpretations Which Compose the Reason of the Worship of Saturn

Chapter 20
Concerning the Rites of Eleusinian Ceres

Chapter 21
Concerning the Shamefulness of the Rites Which are Celebrated in Honor of Liber

Chapter 22
Concerning Neptune, and Salacia and Venilia

Chapter 23
Concerning the Earth, Which Varro Affirms to Be a Goddess, Because that Soul of the World Which He Thinks to Be God Pervades Also This Lowest Part of His Body, and Imparts to It a Divine Force

Chapter 24
Concerning the Surnames of Tellus and Their Significations, Which, Although They Indicate Many Properties, Ought Not to Have Established the Opinion that There is a Corresponding Number of Gods

Chapter 25
The Interpretation of the Mutilation of Atys Which the Doctrine of the Greek Sages Set Forth

Chapter 26
Concerning the Abomination of the Sacred Rites of the Great Mother

Chapter 27
Concerning the Figments of the Physical Theologists, Who Neither Worship the True Divinity, Nor Perform the Worship Wherewith the True Divinity Should Be Served

Chapter 28
That the Doctrine of Varro Concerning Theology is in No Part Consistent with Itself

Chapter 29
That All Things Which the Physical Theologists Have Referred to the World and Its Parts, They Ought to Have Referred to the One True God

Chapter 30
How Piety Distinguishes the Creator from the Creatures, So That, Instead of One God, There are Not Worshipped as Many Gods as There are Works of the One Author

Chapter 31
What Benefits God Gives to the Followers of the Truth to Enjoy Over and Above His General Bounty

Chapter 32
That at No Time in the Past Was the Mystery of Christ’s Redemption Awanting, But Was at All Times Declared, Though in Various Forms

Chapter 33
That Only Through the Christian Religion Could the Deceit of Malign Spirits, Who Rejoice in the Errors of Men, Have Been Manifested

Chapter 34
Concerning the Books of Numa Pompilius, Which the Senate Ordered to Be Burned, in Order that the Causes of Sacred Rights Therein Assigned Should Not Become Known

Chapter 35
Concerning the Hydromancy Through Which Numa Was Befooled by Certain Images of Demons Seen in the Water

Book VIII

Chapter 1
That the Question of Natural Theology is to Be Discussed with Those Philosophers Who Sought a More Excellent Wisdom

Chapter 2
Concerning the Two Schools of Philosophers, that Is, the Italic and Ionic, and Their Founders

Chapter 3
Of the Socratic Philosophy

Chapter 4
Concerning Plato, the Chief Among the Disciples of Socrates, and His Threefold Division of Philosophy

Chapter 5
That It is Especially with the Platonists that We Must Carry on Our Disputations on Matters of Theology, Their Opinions Being Preferable to Those of All Other Philosophers

Chapter 6
Concerning the Meaning of the Platonists in that Part of Philosophy Called Physical

Chapter 7
How Much the Platonists are to Be Held as Excelling Other Philosophers in Logic, i.e. Rational Philosophy

Chapter 8
That the Platonists Hold the First Rank in Moral Philosophy Also

Chapter 9
Concerning that Philosophy Which Has Come Nearest to the Christian Faith

Chapter 10
That the Excellency of the Christian Religion is Above All the Science of Philosophers

Chapter 11
How Plato Has Been Able to Approach So Nearly to Christian Knowledge

Chapter 12
That Even the Platonists, Though They Say These Things Concerning the One True God, Nevertheless Thought that Sacred Rites Were to Be Performed in Honor of Many Gods

Chapter 13
Concerning the Opinion of Plato, According to Which He Defined the Gods as Beings Entirely Good and the Friends of Virtue

Chapter 14
Of the Opinion of Those Who Have Said that Rational Souls are of Three Kinds, to Wit, Those of the Celestial Gods, Those of the Aerial Demons, and Those of Terrestrial Men

Chapter 15
That the Demons are Not Better Than Men Because of Their Aerial Bodies, or on Account of Their Superior Place of Abode

Chapter 16
What Apuleius the Platonist Thought Concerning the Manners and Actions of Demons

Chapter 17
Whether It is Proper that Men Should Worship Those Spirits from Whose Vices It is Necessary that They Be Freed

Chapter 18
What Kind of Religion that is Which Teaches that Men Ought to Employ the Advocacy of Demons in Order to Be Recommended to the Favor of the Good Gods

Chapter 19
Of the Impiety of the Magic Art, Which is Dependent on the Assistance of Malign Spirits

Chapter 20
Whether We are to Believe that the Good Gods are More Willing to Have Intercourse with Demons Than with Men

Chapter 21
Whether the Gods Use the Demons as Messengers and Interpreters, and Whether They are Deceived by Them Willingly, or Without Their Own Knowledge

Chapter 22
That We Must, Notwithstanding the Opinion of Apuleius, Reject the Worship of Demons

Chapter 23
What Hermes Trismegistus Thought Concerning Idolatry, and from What Source He Knew that the Superstitions of Egypt Were to Be Abolished

Chapter 24
How Hermes Openly Confessed the Error of His Forefathers, the Coming Destruction of Which He Nevertheless Bewailed

Chapter 25
Concerning Those Things Which May Be Common to the Holy Angels and to Men

Chapter 26
That All the Religion of the Pagans Has Reference to Dead Men

Chapter 27
Concerning the Nature of the Honor Which the Christians Pay to Their Martyrs

Book IX

Chapter 1
The Point at Which the Discussion Has Arrived, and What Remains to Be Handled

Chapter 2
Whether Among the Demons, Inferior to the Gods, There are Any Good Spirits Under Whose Guardianship the Human Soul Might Reach True Blessedness

Chapter 3
What Apuleius Attributes to the Demons, to Whom, Though He Does Not Deny Them Reason, He Does Not Ascribe Virtue

Chapter 4
The Opinion of the Peripatetics and Stoics About Mental Emotions

Chapter 5
That the Passions Which Assail the Souls of Christians Do Not Seduce Them to Vice, But Exercise Their Virtue

Chapter 6
Of the Passions Which, According to Apuleius, Agitate the Demons Who Are Supposed by Him to Mediate Between Gods and Men

Chapter 7
That the Platonists Maintain that the Poets Wrong the Gods by Representing Them as Distracted by Party Feeling, to Which the Demons and Not the Gods, are Subject

Chapter 8
How Apuleius Defines the Gods Who Dwell in Heaven, the Demons Who Occupy the Air, and Men Who Inhabit Earth

Chapter 9
Whether the Intercession of the Demons Can Secure for Men the Friendship of the Celestial Gods

Chapter 10
That, According to Plotinus, Men, Whose Body is Mortal, are Less Wretched Than Demons, Whose Body is Eternal

Chapter 11
Of the Opinion of the Platonists, that the Souls of Men Become Demons When Disembodied

Chapter 12
Of the Three Opposite Qualities by Which the Platonists Distinguish Between the Nature of Men and that of Demons

Chapter 13
How the Demons Can Mediate Between Gods and Men If They Have Nothing in Common with Both, Being Neither Blessed Like the Gods, Nor Miserable Like Men

Chapter 14
Whether Men, Though Mortal, Can Enjoy True Blessedness

Chapter 15
Of the Man Christ Jesus, the Mediator Between God and Men

Chapter 16
Whether It is Reasonable in the Platonists to Determine that the Celestial Gods Decline Contact with Earthly Things and Intercourse with Men, Who Therefore Require the Intercession of the Demons

Chapter 17
That to Obtain the Blessed Life, Which Consists in Partaking of the Supreme Good, Man Needs Such Mediation as is Furnished Not by a Demon, But by Christ Alone

Chapter 18
That the Deceitful Demons, While Promising to Conduct Men to God by Their Intercession, Mean to Turn Them from the Path of Truth

Chapter 19
That Even Among Their Own Worshippers the Name “Demon” Has Never a Good Signification

Chapter 20
Of the Kind of Knowledge Which Puffs Up the Demons

Chapter 21
To What Extent the Lord Was Pleased to Make Himself Known to the Demons

Chapter 22
The Difference Between the Knowledge of the Holy Angels and that of the Demons

Chapter 23
That the Name of Gods is Falsely Given to the Gods of the Gentiles, Though Scripture Applies It Both to the Holy Angels and Just Men

Book X

Chapter 1
That the Platonists Themselves Have Determined that God Alone Can Confer Happiness Either on Angels or Men, But that It Yet Remains a Question Whether Those Spirits Whom They Direct Us to Worship, that We May Obtain Happiness, Wish Sacrifice to Be Offered to Themselves, or to the One God Only

Chapter 2
The Opinion of Plotinus the Platonist Regarding Enlightenment from Above

Chapter 3
That the Platonists, Though Knowing Something of the Creator of the Universe, Have Misunderstood the True Worship of God, by Giving Divine Honor to Angels, Good or Bad

Chapter 4
That Sacrifice is Due to the True God Only

Chapter 5
Of the Sacrifices Which God Does Not Require, But Wished to Be Observed for the Exhibition of Those Things Which He Does Require

Chapter 6
Of the True and Perfect Sacrifice

Chapter 7
Of the Love of the Holy Angels, Which Prompts Them to Desire that We Worship the One True God, and Not Themselves

Chapter 8
Of the Miracles Which God Has Condescended to Adhibit Through the Ministry of Angels, to His Promises for the Confirmation of the Faith of the Godly

Chapter 9
Of the Illicit Arts Connected with Demonolatry, and of Which the Platonist Porphyry Adopts Some, and Discards Others

Chapter 10
Concerning Theurgy, Which Promises a Delusive Purification of the Soul by the Invocation of Demons

Chapter 11
Of Porphyry’s Epistle to Anebo, in Which He Asks for Information About the Differences Among Demons

Chapter 12
Of the Miracles Wrought by the True God Through the Ministry of the Holy Angels

Chapter 13
Of the Invisible God, Who Has Often Made Himself Visible, Not as He Really Is, But as the Beholders Could Bear the Sight

Chapter 14
That the One God is to Be Worshipped Not Only for the Sake of Eternal Blessings, But Also in Connection with Temporal Prosperity, Because All Things are Regulated by His Providence

Chapter 15
Of the Ministry of the Holy Angels, by Which They Fulfill the Providence of God

Chapter 16
Whether Those Angels Who Demand that We Pay Them Divine Honor, or Those Who Teach Us to Render Holy Service, Not to Themselves, But to God, are to Be Trusted About the Way to Life Eternal

Chapter 17
Concerning the Ark of the Covenant, and the Miraculous Signs Whereby God Authenticated the Law and the Promise

Chapter 18
Against Those Who Deny that the Books of the Church are to Be Believed About the Miracles Whereby the People of God Were Educated

Chapter 19
On the Reasonableness of Offering, as the True Religion Teaches, a Visible Sacrifice to the One True and Invisible God

Chapter 20
Of the Supreme and True Sacrifice Which Was Effected by the Mediator Between God and Men

Chapter 21
Of the Power Delegated to Demons for the Trial and Glorification of the Saints, Who Conquer Not by Propitiating the Spirits of the Air, But by Abiding in God

Chapter 22
Whence the Saints Derive Power Against Demons and True Purification of Heart

Chapter 23
Of the Principles Which, According to the Platonists, Regulate the Purification of the Soul

Chapter 24
Of the One Only True Principle Which Alone Purifies and Renews Human Nature

Chapter 25
That All the Saints, Both Under the Law and Before It, Were Justified by Faith in the Mystery of Christ’s Incarnation

Chapter 26
Of Porphyry’s Weakness in Wavering Between the Confession of the True God and the Worship of Demons

Chapter 27
Of the Impiety of Porphyry, Which is Worse Than Even the Mistake of Apuleius

Chapter 28
How It is that Porphyry Has Been So Blind as Not to Recognize the True Wisdom—Christ

Chapter 29
Of the Incarnation of Our Lord Jesus Christ, Which the Platonists in Their Impiety Blush to Acknowledge

Chapter 30
Porphyry’s Emendations and Modifications of Platonism

Chapter 31
Against the Arguments on Which the Platonists Ground Their Assertion that the Human Soul is Co-Eternal with God

Chapter 32
Of the Universal Way of the Soul’s Deliverance, Which Porphyry Did Not Find Because He Did Not Rightly Seek It, and Which the Grace of Christ Has Alone Thrown Open

Book XI

Chapter 1
Of This Part of the Work, Wherein We Begin to Explain the Origin and End of the Two Cities

Chapter 2
Of the Knowledge of God, to Which No Man Can Attain Save Through the Mediator Between God and Men, the Man Christ Jesus

Chapter 3
Of the Authority of the Canonical Scriptures Composed by the Divine Spirit

Chapter 4
That the World is Neither Without Beginning, Nor Yet Created by a New Decree of God, by Which He Afterwards Willed What He Had Not Before Willed

Chapter 5
That We Ought Not to Seek to Comprehend the Infinite Ages of Time Before the World, Nor the Infinite Realms of Space

Chapter 6
That the World and Time Had Both One Beginning, and the One Did Not Anticipate the Other

Chapter 7
Of the Nature of the First Days, Which are Said to Have Had Morning and Evening, Before There Was a Sun

Chapter 8
What We are to Understand of God’s Resting on the Seventh Day, After the Six Days’ Work

Chapter 9
What the Scriptures Teach Us to Believe Concerning the Creation of the Angels

Chapter 10
Of the Simple and Unchangeable Trinity, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, One God, in Whom Substance and Quality are Identical

Chapter 11
Whether the Angels that Fell Partook of the Blessedness Which the Holy Angels Have Always Enjoyed from the Time of Their Creation

Chapter 12
A Comparison of the Blessedness of the Righteous, Who Have Not Yet Received the Divine Reward, with that of Our First Parents in Paradise

Chapter 13
Whether All the Angels Were So Created in One Common State of Felicity, that Those Who Fell Were Not Aware that They Would Fall, and that Those Who Stood Received Assurance of Their Own Perseverance After the Ruin of the Fallen

Chapter 14
An Explanation of What is Said of the Devil, that He Did Not Abide in the Truth, Because the Truth Was Not in Him

Chapter 15
How We are to Understand the Words, “The Devil Sinneth from the Beginning.”

Chapter 16
Of the Ranks and Differences of the Creatures, Estimated by Their Utility, or According to the Natural Gradations of Being

Chapter 17
That the Flaw of Wickedness is Not Nature, But Contrary to Nature, and Has Its Origin, Not in the Creator, But in the Will

Chapter 18
Of the Beauty of the Universe, Which Becomes, by God’s Ordinance, More Brilliant by the Opposition of Contraries

Chapter 19
What, Seemingly, We are to Understand by the Words, “God Divided the Light from the Darkness.”

Chapter 20
Of the Words Which Follow the Separation of Light and Darkness, “And God Saw the Light that It Was Good.”

Chapter 21
Of God’s Eternal and Unchangeable Knowledge and Will, Whereby All He Has Made Pleased Him in the Eternal Design as Well as in the Actual Result

Chapter 22
Of Those Who Do Not Approve of Certain Things Which are a Part of This Good Creation of a Good Creator, and Who Think that There is Some Natural Evil

Chapter 23
Of the Error in Which the Doctrine of Origen is Involved

Chapter 24
Of the Divine Trinity, and the Indications of Its Presence Scattered Everywhere Among Its Works

Chapter 25
Of the Division of Philosophy into Three Parts

Chapter 26
Of the Image of the Supreme Trinity, Which We Find in Some Sort in Human Nature Even in Its Present State

Chapter 27
Of Existence, and Knowledge of It, and the Love of Both

Chapter 28
Whether We Ought to Love the Love Itself with Which We Love Our Existence and Our Knowledge of It, that So We May More Nearly Resemble the Image of the Divine Trinity

Chapter 29
Of the Knowledge by Which the Holy Angels Know God in His Essence, and by Which They See the Causes of His Works in the Art of the Worker, Before They See Them in the Works of the Artist

Chapter 30
Of the Perfection of the Number Six, Which is the First of the Numbers Which is Composed of Its Aliquot Parts

Chapter 31
Of the Seventh Day, in Which Completeness and Repose are Celebrated

Chapter 32
Of the Opinion that the Angels Were Created Before the World

Chapter 33
Of the Two Different and Dissimilar Communities of Angels, Which are Not Inappropriately Signified by the Names Light and Darkness

Chapter 34
Of the Idea that the Angels Were Meant Where the Separation of the Waters by the Firmament is Spoken Of, and of that Other Idea that the Waters Were Not Created

Book XII

Chapter 1
That the Nature of the Angels, Both Good and Bad, is One and the Same

Chapter 2
That There is No Entity Contrary to the Divine, Because Nonentity Seems to Be that Which is Wholly Opposite to Him Who Supremely and Always is

Chapter 3
That the Enemies of God are So, Not by Nature, But by Will, Which, as It Injures Them, Injures a Good Nature; For If Vice Does Not Injure, It is Not Vice

Chapter 4
Of the Nature of Irrational and Lifeless Creatures, Which in Their Own Kind and Order Do Not Mar the Beauty of the Universe

Chapter 5
That in All Natures, of Every Kind and Rank, God is Glorified

Chapter 6
What the Cause of the Blessedness of the Good Angels Is, and What the Cause of the Misery of the Wicked

Chapter 7
That We Ought Not to Expect to Find Any Efficient Cause of the Evil Will

Chapter 8
Of the Misdirected Love Whereby the Will Fell Away from the Immutable to the Mutable Good

Chapter 9
Whether the Angels, Besides Receiving from God Their Nature, Received from Him Also Their Good Will by the Holy Spirit Imbuing Them with Love

Chapter 10
Of the Falseness of the History Which Allots Many Thousand Years to the World’s Past

Chapter 11
Of Those Who Suppose that This World Indeed is Not Eternal, But that Either There are Numberless Worlds, or that One and the Same World is Perpetually Resolved into Its Elements, and Renewed at the Conclusion of Fixed Cycles

Chapter 12
How These Persons are to Be Answered, Who Find Fault with the Creation of Man on the Score of Its Recent Date

Chapter 13
Of the Revolution of the Ages, Which Some Philosophers Believe Will Bring All Things Round Again, After a Certain Fixed Cycle, to the Same Order and Form as at First

Chapter 14
Of the Creation of the Human Race in Time, and How This Was Effected Without Any New Design or Change of Purpose on God’s Part

Chapter 15
Whether We are to Believe that God, as He Has Always Been Sovereign Lord, Has Always Had Creatures Over Whom He Exercised His Sovereignty; And in What Sense We Can Say that the Creature Has Always Been, and Yet Cannot Say It is Co-Eternal

Chapter 16
How We are to Understand God’s Promise of Life Eternal, Which Was Uttered Before the “Eternal Times.”

Chapter 17
What Defence is Made by Sound Faith Regarding God’s Unchangeable Counsel and Will, Against the Reasonings of Those Who Hold that the Works of God are Eternally Repeated in Revolving Cycles that Restore All Things as They Were

Chapter 18
Against Those Who Assert that Things that are Infinite Cannot Be Comprehended by the Knowledge of God

Chapter 19
Of Worlds Without End, or Ages of Ages

Chapter 20
Of the Impiety of Those Who Assert that the Souls Which Enjoy True and Perfect Blessedness, Must Yet Again and Again in These Periodic Revolutions Return to Labor and Misery

Chapter 21
That There Was Created at First But One Individual, and that the Human Race Was Created in Him

Chapter 22
That God Foreknew that the First Man Would Sin, and that He at the Same Time Foresaw How Large a Multitude of Godly Persons Would by His Grace Be Translated to the Fellowship of the Angels

Chapter 23
Of the Nature of the Human Soul Created in the Image of God

Chapter 24
Whether the Angels Can Be Said to Be the Creators of Any, Even the Least Creature

Chapter 25
That God Alone is the Creator of Every Kind of Creature, Whatever Its Nature or Form

Chapter 26
Of that Opinion of the Platonists, that the Angels Were Themselves Indeed Created by God, But that Afterwards They Created Man’s Body

Chapter 27
That the Whole Plenitude of the Human Race Was Embraced in the First Man, and that God There Saw the Portion of It Which Was to Be Honored and Rewarded, and that Which Was to Be Condemned and Punished

Book XIII

Chapter 1
Of the Fall of the First Man, Through Which Mortality Has Been Contracted

Chapter 2
Of that Death Which Can Affect an Immortal Soul, and of that to Which the Body is Subject

Chapter 3
Whether Death, Which by the Sin of Our First Parents Has Passed Upon All Men, is the Punishment of Sin, Even to the Good

Chapter 4
Why Death, the Punishment of Sin, is Not Withheld from Those Who by the Grace of Regeneration are Absolved from Sin

Chapter 5
As the Wicked Make an Ill Use of the Law, Which is Good, So the Good Make a Good Use of Death, Which is an Ill

Chapter 6
Of the Evil of Death in General, Considered as the Separation of Soul and Body

Chapter 7
Of the Death Which the Unbaptized Suffer for the Confession of Christ

Chapter 8
That the Saints, by Suffering the First Death for the Truth’s Sake, are Freed from the Second

Chapter 9
Whether We Should Say that The Moment of Death, in Which Sensation Ceases, Occurs in the Experience of the Dying or in that of the Dead

Chapter 10
Of the Life of Mortals, Which is Rather to Be Called Death Than Life

Chapter 11
Whether One Can Both Be Living and Dead at the Same Time

Chapter 12
What Death God Intended, When He Threatened Our First Parents with Death If They Should Disobey His Commandment

Chapter 13
What Was the First Punishment of the Transgression of Our First Parents

Chapter 14
In What State Man Was Made by God, and into What Estate He Fell by the Choice of His Own Will

Chapter 15
That Adam in His Sin Forsook God Ere God Forsook Him, and that His Falling Away From God Was the First Death of the Soul

Chapter 16
Concerning the Philosophers Who Think that the Separation of Soul and Body is Not Penal, Though Plato Represents the Supreme Deity as Promising to the Inferior Gods that They Shall Never Be Dismissed from Their Bodies

Chapter 17
Against Those Who Affirm that Earthly Bodies Cannot Be Made Incorruptible and Eternal

Chapter 18
Of Earthly Bodies, Which the Philosophers Affirm Cannot Be in Heavenly Places, Because Whatever is of Earth is by Its Natural Weight Attracted to Earth

Chapter 19
Against the Opinion of Those Who Do Not Believe that the Primitive Men Would Have Been Immortal If They Had Not Sinned

Chapter 20
That the Flesh Now Resting in Peace Shall Be Raised to a Perfection Not Enjoyed by the Flesh of Our First Parents

Chapter 21
Of Paradise, that It Can Be Understood in a Spiritual Sense Without Sacrificing the Historic Truth of the Narrative Regarding The Real Place

Chapter 22
That the Bodies of the Saints Shall After the Resurrection Be Spiritual, and Yet Flesh Shall Not Be Changed into Spirit

Chapter 23
What We are to Understand by the Animal and Spiritual Body; Or of Those Who Die in Adam, And of Those Who are Made Alive in Christ

Chapter 24
How We Must Understand that Breathing of God by Which “The First Man Was Made a Living Soul,” And that Also by Which the Lord Conveyed His Spirit to His Disciples When He Said, “Receive Ye the Holy Ghost.”

Book XIV

Chapter 1
That the Disobedience of the First Man Would Have Plunged All Men into the Endless Misery of the Second Death, Had Not the Grace of God Rescued Many

Chapter 2
Of Carnal Life, Which is to Be Understood Not Only of Living in Bodily Indulgence, But Also of Living in the Vices of the Inner Man

Chapter 3
That the Sin is Caused Not by the Flesh, But by the Soul, and that the Corruption Contracted from Sin is Not Sin But Sin’s Punishment

Chapter 4
What It is to Live According to Man, and What to Live According to God

Chapter 5
That the Opinion of the Platonists Regarding the Nature of Body and Soul is Not So Censurable as that of the Manichaeans, But that Even It is Objectionable, Because It Ascribes the Origin of Vices to the Nature of The Flesh

Chapter 6
Of the Character of the Human Will Which Makes the Affections of the Soul Right or Wrong

Chapter 7
That the Words Love and Regard (Amor and Dilectio) are in Scripture Used Indifferently of Good and Evil Affection

Chapter 8
Of the Three Perturbations, Which the Stoics Admitted in the Soul of the Wise Man to the Exclusion of Grief or Sadness, Which the Manly Mind Ought Not to Experience

Chapter 9
Of the Perturbations of the Soul Which Appear as Right Affections in the Life of the Righteous

Chapter 10
Whether It is to Be Believed that Our First Parents in Paradise, Before They Sinned, Were Free from All Perturbation

Chapter 11
Of the Fall of the First Man, in Whom Nature Was Created Good, and Can Be Restored Only by Its Author

Chapter 12
Of the Nature of Man’s First Sin

Chapter 13
That in Adam’s Sin an Evil Will Preceded the Evil Act

Chapter 14
Of the Pride in the Sin, Which Was Worse Than the Sin Itself

Chapter 15
Of the Justice of the Punishment with Which Our First Parents Were Visited for Their Disobedience

Chapter 16
Of the Evil of Lust,—A Word Which, Though Applicable to Many Vices, is Specially Appropriated to Sexual Uncleanness

Chapter 17
Of the Nakedness of Our First Parents, Which They Saw After Their Base and Shameful Sin

Chapter 18
Of the Shame Which Attends All Sexual Intercourse

Chapter 19
That It is Now Necessary, as It Was Not Before Man Sinned, to Bridle Anger and Lust by the Restraining Influence of Wisdom

Chapter 20
Of the Foolish Beastliness of the Cynics

Chapter 21
That Man’s Transgression Did Not Annul the Blessing of Fecundity Pronounced Upon Man Before He Sinned But Infected It with the Disease of Lust

Chapter 22
Of the Conjugal Union as It Was Originally Instituted and Blessed by God

Chapter 23
Whether Generation Should Have Taken Place Even in Paradise Had Man Not Sinned, or Whether There Should Have Been Any Contention There Between Chastity and Lust

Chapter 24
That If Men Had Remained Innocent and Obedient in Paradise, the Generative Organs Should Have Been in Subjection to the Will as the Other Members are

Chapter 25
Of True Blessedness, Which This Present Life Cannot Enjoy

Chapter 26
That We are to Believe that in Paradise Our First Parents Begat Offspring Without Blushing

Chapter 27
Of the Angels and Men Who Sinned, and that Their Wickedness Did Not Disturb the Order of God’s Providence

Chapter 28
Of the Nature of the Two Cities, the Earthly and the Heavenly

Book XV

Chapter 1
Of the Two Lines of the Human Race Which from First to Last Divide It

Chapter 2
Of the Children of the Flesh and the Children of the Promise

Chapter 3
That Sarah’s Barrenness was Made Productive by God’s Grace

Chapter 4
Of the Conflict and Peace of the Earthly City

Chapter 5
Of the Fratricidal Act of the Founder of the Earthly City, and the Corresponding Crime of the Founder of Rome

Chapter 6
Of the Weaknesses Which Even the Citizens of the City of God Suffer During This Earthly Pilgrimage in Punishment of Sin, and of Which They are Healed by God’s Care

Chapter 7
Of the Cause of Cain’s Crime and His Obstinacy, Which Not Even the Word of God Could Subdue

Chapter 8
What Cain’s Reason Was for Building a City So Early in the History of the Human Race

Chapter 9
Of the Long Life and Greater Stature of the Antediluvians

Chapter 10
Of the Different Computation of the Ages of the Antediluvians, Given by the Hebrew Manuscripts and by Our Own

Chapter 11
Of Methuselah’s Age, Which Seems to Extend Fourteen Years Beyond the Deluge

Chapter 12
Of the Opinion of Those Who Do Not Believe that in These Primitive Times Men Lived So Long as is Stated

Chapter 13
Whether, in Computing Years, We Ought to Follow the Hebrew or the Septuagint

Chapter 14
That the Years in Those Ancient Times Were of the Same Length as Our Own

Chapter 15
Whether It is Credible that the Men of the Primitive Age Abstained from Sexual Intercourse Until that Date at Which It is Recorded that They Begat Children

Chapter 16
Of Marriage Between Blood-Relations, in Regard to Which the Present Law Could Not Bind the Men of the Earliest Ages

Chapter 17
Of the Two Fathers and Leaders Who Sprang from One Progenitor

Chapter 18
The Significance of Abel, Seth, and Enos to Christ and His Body the Church

Chapter 19
The Significance Of Enoch’s Translation

Chapter 20
How It is that Cain’s Line Terminates in the Eighth Generation, While Noah, Though Descended from the Same Father, Adam, is Found to Be the Tenth from Him

Chapter 21
Why It is That, as Soon as Cain’s Son Enoch Has Been Named, the Genealogy is Forthwith Continued as Far as the Deluge, While After the Mention of Enos, Seth’s Son, the Narrative Returns Again to the Creation of Man

Chapter 22
Of the Fall of the Sons of God Who Were Captivated by the Daughters of Men, Whereby All, with the Exception of Eight Persons, Deservedly Perished in the Deluge

Chapter 23
Whether We are to Believe that Angels, Who are of a Spiritual Substance, Fell in Love with the Beauty of Women, and Sought Them in Marriage, and that from This Connection Giants Were Born

Chapter 24
How We are to Understand This Which the Lord Said to Those Who Were to Perish in the Flood: “Their Days Shall Be 120 Years.”

Chapter 25
Of the Anger of God, Which Does Not Inflame His Mind, Nor Disturb His Unchangeable Tranquillity

Chapter 26
That the Ark Which Noah Was Ordered to Make Figures In Every Respect Christ and the Church

Chapter 27
Of the Ark and the Deluge, and that We Cannot Agree with Those Who Receive the Bare History, But Reject the Allegorical Interpretation, Nor with Those Who Maintain the Figurative and Not the Historical Meaning

Book XVI

Chapter 1
Whether, After the Deluge, from Noah to Abraham, Any Families Can Be Found Who Lived According to God

Chapter 2
What Was Prophetically Prefigured in the Sons of Noah

Chapter 3
Of the Generations of the Three Sons of Noah

Chapter 4
Of the Diversity of Languages, and of the Founding of Babylon

Chapter 5
Of God’s Coming Down to Confound the Languages of the Builders of the City

Chapter 6
What We are to Understand by God’s Speaking to the Angels

Chapter 7
Whether Even the Remotest Islands Received Their Fauna from the Animals Which Were Preserved, Through the Deluge, in the Ark

Chapter 8
Whether Certain Monstrous Races of Men are Derived from the Stock of Adam or Noah’s Sons

Chapter 9
Whether We are to Believe in the Antipodes

Chapter 10
Of the Genealogy of Shem, in Whose Line the City of God is Preserved Till the Time of Abraham

Chapter 11
That the Original Language in Use Among Men Was that Which Was Afterwards Called Hebrew, from Heber, in Whose Family It Was Preserved When the Confusion of Tongues Occurred

Chapter 12
Of the Era in Abraham’s Life from Which a New Period in the Holy Succession Begins

Chapter 13
Why, in the Account of Terah’s Emigration, on His Forsaking the Chaldeans and Passing Over into Mesopotamia, No Mention is Made of His Son Nahor

Chapter 14
Of the Years of Terah, Who Completed His Lifetime in Haran

Chapter 15
Of the Time of the Migration of Abraham, When, According to the Commandment of God, He Went Out from Haran

Chapter 16
Of the Order and Nature of the Promises of God Which Were Made to Abraham

Chapter 17
Of the Three Most Famous Kingdoms of the Nations, of Which One, that is the Assyrian, Was Already Very Eminent When Abraham Was Born

Chapter 18
Of the Repeated Address of God to Abraham, in Which He Promised the Land of Canaan to Him and to His Seed

Chapter 19
Of the Divine Preservation of Sarah’s Chastity in Egypt, When Abraham Had Called Her Not His Wife But His Sister

Chapter 20
Of the Parting of Lot and Abraham, Which They Agreed to Without Breach of Charity

Chapter 21
Of the Third Promise of God, by Which He Assured the Land of Canaan to Abraham and His Seed in Perpetuity

Chapter 22
Of Abraham’s Overcoming the Enemies of Sodom, When He Delivered Lot from Captivity and Was Blessed by Melchizedek the Priest

Chapter 23
Of the Word of the Lord to Abraham, by Which It Was Promised to Him that His Posterity Should Be Multiplied According to the Multitude of the Stars; On Believing Which He Was Declared Justified While Yet in Uncircumcision

Chapter 24
Of the Meaning of the Sacrifice Abraham Was Commanded to Offer When He Supplicated to Be Taught About Those Things He Had Believed

Chapter 25
Of Sarah’s Handmaid, Hagar, Whom She Herself Wished to Be Abraham’s Concubine

Chapter 26
Of God’s Attestation to Abraham, by Which He Assures Him, When Now Old, of a Son by the Barren Sarah, and Appoints Him the Father of the Nations, and Seals His Faith in the Promise by the Sacrament of Circumcision

Chapter 27
Of the Male, Who Was to Lose His Soul If He Was Not Circumcised on the Eighth Day, Because He Had Broken God’s Covenant

Chapter 28
Of the Change of Name in Abraham and Sarah, Who Received the Gift of Fecundity When They Were Incapable of Regeneration Owing to the Barrenness of One, and the Old Age of Both

Chapter 29
Of the Three Men or Angels, in Whom the Lord is Related to Have Appeared to Abraham at the Oak of Mamre

Chapter 30
Of Lot’s Deliverance from Sodom, and Its Consumption by Fire from Heaven; And of Abimelech, Whose Lust Could Not Harm Sarah’s Chastity

Chapter 31
Of Isaac, Who Was Born According to the Promise, Whose Name Was Given on Account of the Laughter of Both Parents

Chapter 32
Of Abraham’s Obedience and Faith, Which Were Proved by the Offering Up, of His Son in Sacrifice, and of Sarah’s Death

Chapter 33
Of Rebecca, the Grand-Daughter of Nahor, Whom Isaac Took to Wife

Chapter 34
What is Meant by Abraham’s Marrying Keturah After Sarah’s Death

Chapter 35
What Was Indicated by the Divine Answer About the Twins Still Shut Up in the Womb of Rebecca Their Mother

Chapter 36
Of the Oracle and Blessing Which Isaac Received, Just as His Father Did, Being Beloved for His Sake

Chapter 37
Of the Things Mystically Prefigured in Esau and Jacob

Chapter 38
Of Jacob’s Mission to Mesopotamia to Get a Wife, and of the Vision Which He Saw in a Dream by the Way, and of His Getting Four Women When He Sought One Wife

Chapter 39
The Reason Why Jacob Was Also Called Israel

Chapter 40
How It is Said that Jacob Went into Egypt with Seventy-Five Souls, When Most of Those Who are Mentioned Were Born at a Later Period

Chapter 41
Of the Blessing Which Jacob Promised in Judah His Son

Chapter 42
Of the Sons of Joseph, Whom Jacob Blessed, Prophetically Changing His Hands

Chapter 43
Of the Times of Moses and Joshua the Son of Nun, of the Judges, and Thereafter of the Kings, of Whom Saul Was the First, But David is to Be Regarded as the Chief, Both by the Oath and by Merit

Book XVII

Chapter 1
Of the Prophetic Age

Chapter 2
At What Time the Promise of God Was Fulfilled Concerning the Land of Canaan, Which Even Carnal Israel Got in Possession

Chapter 3
Of the Three-Fold Meaning of the Prophecies, Which are to Be Referred Now to the Earthly, Now to the Heavenly Jerusalem, and Now Again to Both

Chapter 4
About the Prefigured Change of the Israelitic Kingdom and Priesthood, and About the Things Hannah the Mother of Samuel Prophesied, Personating the Church

Chapter 5
Of Those Things Which a Man of God Spake by the Spirit to Eli the Priest, Signifying that the Priesthood Which Had Been Appointed According to Aaron Was to Be Taken Away

Chapter 6
Of the Jewish Priesthood and Kingdom, Which, Although Promised to Be Established for Ever, Did Not Continue; So that Other Things are to Be Understood to Which Eternity is Assured

Chapter 7
Of the Disruption of the Kingdom of Israel, by Which the Perpetual Division of the Spiritual from the Carnal Israel Was Prefigured

Chapter 8
Of the Promises Made to David in His Son, Which are in No Wise Fulfilled in Solomon, But Most Fully in Christ

Chapter 9
How Like the Prophecy About Christ in the 89th Psalm is to the Things Promised in Nathan’s Prophecy in the Books of Samuel

Chapter 10
How Different the Acts in the Kingdom of the Earthly Jerusalem are from Those Which God Had Promised, So that the Truth of the Promise Should Be Understood to Pertain to the Glory of the Other King and Kingdom

Chapter 11
Of the Substance of the People of God, Which Through His Assumption of Flesh is in Christ, Who Alone Had Power to Deliver His Own Soul from Hell

Chapter 12
To Whose Person the Entreaty for the Promises is to Be Understood to Belong, When He Says in the Psalm, “Where are Thine Ancient Compassions, Lord?” Etc

Chapter 13
Whether the Truth of This Promised Peace Can Be Ascribed to Those Times Passed Away Under Solomon

Chapter 14
Of David’s Concern in the Writing of the Psalms

Chapter 15
Whether All the Things Prophesied in the Psalms Concerning Christ and His Church Should Be Taken Up in the Text of This Work

Chapter 16
Of the Things Pertaining to Christ and the Church, Said Either Openly or Tropically in the 45th Psalm

Chapter 17
Of Those Things in the 110th Psalm Which Relate to the Priesthood of Christ, and in the 22d to His Passion

Chapter 18
Of the 3d, 41st, 15th, and 68th Psalms, in Which the Death and Resurrection of the Lord are Prophesied

Chapter 19
Of the 69th Psalm, in Which the Obstinate Unbelief of the Jews is Declared

Chapter 20
Of David’s Reign and Merit; And of His Son Solomon, and that Prophecy Relating to Christ Which is Found Either in Those Books Which are Joined to Those Written by Him, or in Those Which are Indubitably His

Chapter 21
Of the Kings After Solomon, Both in Judah and Israel

Chapter 22
Of Jeroboam, Who Profaned the People Put Under Him by the Impiety of Idolatry, Amid Which, However, God Did Not Cease to Inspire the Prophets, and to Guard Many from the Crime of Idolatry

Chapter 23
Of the Varying Condition of Both the Hebrew Kingdoms, Until the People of Both Were at Different Times Led into Captivity, Judah Being Afterwards Recalled into His Kingdom, Which Finally Passed into the Power of the Romans

Chapter 24
Of the Prophets, Who Either Were the Last Among the Jews, or Whom the Gospel History Reports About the Time of Christ’s Nativity

Book XVIII

Chapter 1
Of Those Things Down to the Times of the Saviour Which Have Been Discussed in the Seventeen Books

Chapter 2
Of the Kings and Times of the Earthly City Which Were Synchronous with the Times of the Saints, Reckoning from the Rise of Abraham

Chapter 3
What Kings Reigned in Assyria and Sicyon When, According to the Promise, Isaac Was Born to Abraham in His Hundredth Year, and When the Twins Esau and Jacob Were Born of Rebecca to Isaac in His Sixtieth Year

Chapter 4
Of the Times of Jacob and His Son Joseph

Chapter 5
Of Apis King of Argos, Whom the Egyptians Called Serapis, and Worshipped with Divine Honors

Chapter 6
Who Were Kings of Argos, and of Assyria, When Jacob Died in Egypt

Chapter 7
Who Were Kings When Joseph Died in Egypt

Chapter 8
Who Were Kings When Moses Was Born, and What Gods Began to Be Worshipped Then

Chapter 9
When the City of Athens Was Founded, and What Reason Varro Assigns for Its Name

Chapter 10
What Varro Reports About the Term Areopagus, and About Deucalion’s Flood

Chapter 11
When Moses Led the People Out of Egypt; And Who Were Kings When His Successor Joshua the Son of Nun Died

Chapter 12
Of the Rituals of False Gods Instituted by the Kings of Greece in the Period from Israel’s Exodus from Egypt Down to the Death of Joshua the Son of Nun

Chapter 13
What Fables Were Invented at the Time When Judges Began to Rule the Hebrews

Chapter 14
Of the Theological Poets

Chapter 15
Of the Fall of the Kingdom of Argos, When Picus the Son of Saturn First Received His Father’s Kingdom of Laurentum

Chapter 16
Of Diomede, Who After the Destruction of Troy Was Placed Among the Gods, While His Companions are Said to Have Been Changed into Birds

Chapter 17
What Varro Says of the Incredible Transformations of Men

Chapter 18
What We Should Believe Concerning the Transformations Which Seem to Happen to Men Through the Art of Demons

Chapter 19
That AEneas Came into Italy When Abdon the Judge Ruled Over the Hebrews

Chapter 20
Of the Succession of the Line of Kings Among the Israelites After the Times of the Judges

Chapter 21
Of the Kings of Latium, the First and Twelfth of Whom, AEneas and Aventinus, Were Made Gods

Chapter 22
That Rome Was Founded When the Assyrian Kingdom Perished, at Which Time Hezekiah Reigned in Judah

Chapter 23
Of the Erythraean Sibyl, Who is Known to Have Sung Many Things About Christ More Plainly Than the Other Sibyls

Chapter 24
That the Seven Sages Flourished in the Reign of Romulus, When the Ten Tribes Which Were Called Israel Were Led into Captivity by the Chaldeans, and Romulus, When Dead, Had Divine Honors Conferred on Him

Chapter 25
What Philosophers Were Famous When Tarquinius Priscus Reigned Over the Romans, and Zedekiah Over the Hebrews, When Jerusalem Was Taken and the Temple Overthrown

Chapter 26
That at the Time When the Captivity of the Jews Was Brought to an End, on the Completion of Seventy Years, the Romans Also Were Freed from Kingly Rule

Chapter 27
Of the Times of the Prophets Whose Oracles are Contained in Books and Who Sang Many Things About the Call of the Gentiles at the Time When the Roman Kingdom Began and the Assyrian Came to an End

Chapter 28
Of the Things Pertaining to the Gospel of Christ Which Hosea and Amos Prohesied

Chapter 29
What Things are Predicted by Isaiah Concerning Christ and the Church

Chapter 30
What Micah, Jonah, and Joel Prophesied in Accordance with the New Testament

Chapter 31
Of the Predictions Concerning the Salvation of the World in Christ, in Obadiah, Nahum, and Habakkuk

Chapter 32
Of the Prophecy that is Contained in the Prayer and Song of Habakkuk

Chapter 33
What Jeremiah and Zephaniah Have, by the Prophetic Spirit, Spoken Before Concerning Christ and the Calling of the Nations

Chapter 34
Of the Prophecy of Daniel and Ezekiel, Other Two of the Greater Prophets

Chapter 35
Of the Prophecy of the Three Prophets, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi

Chapter 36
About Esdras and the Books of the Maccabees

Chapter 37
That Prophetic Records are Found Which are More Ancient Than Any Fountain of the Gentile Philosophy

Chapter 38
That the Ecclesiastical Canon Has Not Admitted Certain Writings on Account of Their Too Great Antiquity, Lest Through Them False Things Should Be Inserted Instead of True

Chapter 39
About the Hebrew Written Characters Which that Language Always Possessed

Chapter 40
About the Most Mendacious Vanity of the Egyptians, in Which They Ascribe to Their Science an Antiquity of a Hundred Thousand Years

Chapter 41
About the Discord of Philosophic Opinion, and the Concord of the Scriptures that are Held as Canonical by the Church

Chapter 42
By What Dispensation of God’s Providence the Sacred Scriptures of the Old Testament Were Translated Out of Hebrew into Greek, that They Might Be Made Known to All the Nations

Chapter 43
Of the Authority of the Septuagint Translation, Which, Saving the Honor of the Hebrew Original, is to Be Preferred to All Translations

Chapter 44
How the Threat of the Destruction of the Ninevites is to Be Understood Which in the Hebrew Extends to Forty Days, While in the Septuagint It is Contracted to Three

Chapter 45
That the Jews Ceased to Have Prophets After the Rebuilding of the Temple, and from that Time Until the Birth of Christ Were Afflicted with Continual Adversity, to Prove that the Building of Another Temple Had Been Promised by Prophetic Voices

Chapter 46
Of the Birth of Our Saviour, Whereby the Word Was Made Flesh; And of the Dispersion of the Jews Among All Nations, as Had Been Prophesied

Chapter 47
Whether Before Christian Times There Were Any Outside of the Israelite Race Who Belonged to the Fellowship of the Heavenly City

Chapter 48
That Haggai’s Prophecy, in Which He Said that the Glory of the House of God Would Be Greater Than that of the First Had Been, Was Really Fulfilled, Not in the Rebuilding of the Temple, But in the Church of Christ

Chapter 49
Of the Indiscriminate Increase of the Church, Wherein Many Reprobate are in This World Mixed with the Elect

Chapter 50
Of the Preaching of the Gospel, Which is Made More Famous and Powerful by the Sufferings of Its Preachers

Chapter 51
That the Catholic Faith May Be Confirmed Even by the Dissensions of the Heretics

Chapter 52
Whether We Should Believe What Some Think, That, as the Ten Persecutions Which are Past Have Been Fulfilled, There Remains No Other Beyond the Eleventh, Which Must Happen in the Very Time of Antichrist

Chapter 53
Of the Hidden Time of the Final Persecution

Chapter 54
Of the Very Foolish Lie of the Pagans, in Feigning that the Christian Religion Was Not to Last Beyond Three Hundred and Sixty-Five Years

Book XIX

Chapter 1
That Varro Has Made Out that Two Hundred and Eighty-Eight Different Sects of Philosophy Might Be Formed by the Various Opinions Regarding the Supreme Good

Chapter 2
How Varro, by Removing All the Differences Which Do Not Form Sects, But are Merely Secondary Questions, Reaches Three Definitions of the Chief Good, of Which We Must Choose One

Chapter 3
Which of the Three Leading Opinions Regarding the Chief Good Should Be Preferred, According to Varro, Who Follows Antiochus and the Old Academy

Chapter 4
What the Christians Believe Regarding the Supreme Good and Evil, in Opposition to the Philosophers, Who Have Maintained that the Supreme Good is in Themselves

Chapter 5
Of the Social Life, Which, Though Most Desirable, is Frequently Disturbed by Many Distresses

Chapter 6
Of the Error of Human Judgments When the Truth is Hidden

Chapter 7
Of the Diversity of Languages, by Which the Intercourse of Men is Prevented; And of the Misery of Wars, Even of Those Called Just

Chapter 8
That the Friendship of Good Men Cannot Be Securely Rested In, So Long as the Dangers of This Life Force Us to Be Anxious

Chapter 9
Of the Friendship of the Holy Angels, Which Men Cannot Be Sure of in This Life, Owing to the Deceit of the Demons Who Hold in Bondage the Worshippers of a Plurality of Gods

Chapter 10
The Reward Prepared for the Saints After They Have Endured the Trial of This Life

Chapter 11
Of the Happiness of the Eternal Peace, Which Constitutes the End or True Perfection of the Saints

Chapter 12
That Even the Fierceness of War and All the Disquietude of Men Make Towards This One End of Peace, Which Every Nature Desires

Chapter 13
Of the Universal Peace Which the Law of Nature Preserves Through All Disturbances, and by Which Every One Reaches His Desert in a Way Regulated by the Just Judge

Chapter 14
Of the Order and Law Which Obtain in Heaven and Earth, Whereby It Comes to Pass that Human Society Is Served by Those Who Rule It

Chapter 15
Of the Liberty Proper to Man’s Nature, and the Servitude Introduced by Sin,—A Servitude in Which the Man Whose Will is Wicked is the Slave of His Own Lust, Though He is Free So Far as Regards Other Men

Chapter 16
Of Equitable Rule

Chapter 17
What Produces Peace, and What Discord, Between the Heavenly and Earthly Cities

Chapter 18
How Different the Uncertainty of the New Academy is from the Certainty of the Christian Faith

Chapter 19
Of the Dress and Habits of the Christian People

Chapter 20
That the Saints are in This Life Blessed in Hope

Chapter 21
Whether There Ever Was a Roman Republic Answering to the Definitions of Scipio in Cicero’s Dialogue

Chapter 22
Whether the God Whom the Christians Serve is the True God to Whom Alone Sacrifice Ought to Be Paid

Chapter 23
Porphyry’s Account of the Responses Given by the Oracles of the gods Concerning Christ

Chapter 24
The Definition Which Must Be Given of a People and a Republic, in Order to Vindicate the Assumption of These Titles by the Romans and by Other Kingdoms

Chapter 25
That Where There is No True Religion There are No True Virtues

Chapter 26
Of the Peace Which is Enjoyed by the People that are Alienated from God, and the Use Made of It by the People of God in the Time of Its Pilgrimage

Chapter 27
That the Peace of Those Who Serve God Cannot in This Mortal Life Be Apprehended in Its Perfection

Chapter 28
The End of the Wicked

Book XX

Chapter 1
That Although God is Always Judging, It is Nevertheless Reasonable to Confine Our Attention in This Book to His Last Judgment

Chapter 2
That in the Mingled Web of Human Affairs God’s Judgment is Present, Though It Cannot Be Discerned

Chapter 3
What Solomon, in the Book of Ecclesiastes, Says Regarding the Things Which Happen Alike to Good and Wicked Men

Chapter 4
That Proofs of the Last Judgment Will Be Adduced, First from the New Testament, and Then from the Old

Chapter 5
The Passages in Which the Saviour Declares that There Shall Be a Divine Judgment in the End of the World

Chapter 6
What is the First Resurrection, and What the Second

Chapter 7
What is Written in the Revelation of John Regarding the Two Resurrections, and the Thousand Years, and What May Reasonably Be Held on These Points

Chapter 8
Of the Binding and Loosing of the Devil

Chapter 9
What the Reign of the Saints with Christ for a Thousand Years Is, and How It Differs from the Eternal Kingdom

Chapter 10
What is to Be Replied to Those Who Think that Resurrection Pertains Only to Bodies and Not to Souls

Chapter 11
Of Gog and Magog, Who are to Be Roused by the Devil to Persecute the Church, When He is Loosed in the End of the World

Chapter 12
Whether the Fire that Came Down Out of Heaven and Devoured Them Refers to the Last Punishment of the Wicked

Chapter 13
Whether the Time of the Persecution or Antichrist Should Be Reckoned in the Thousand Years

Chapter 14
Of the Damnation of the Devil and His Adherents; And a Sketch of the Bodily Resurrection of All the Dead, and of the Final Retributive Judgment

Chapter 15
Who the Dead are Who are Given Up to Judgment by the Sea, and by Death and Hell

Chapter 16
Of the New Heaven and the New Earth

Chapter 17
Of the Endless Glory of the Church

Chapter 18
What the Apostle Peter Predicted Regarding the Last Judgment

Chapter 19
What the Apostle Paul Wrote to the Thessalonians About the Manifestation of Antichrist Which Shall Precede the Day of the Lord

Chapter 20
What the Same Apostle Taught in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians Regarding the Resurrection of the Dead

Chapter 21
Utterances of the Prophet Isaiah Regarding the Resurrection of the Dead and the Retributive Judgment

Chapter 22
What is Meant by the Good Going Out to See the Punishment of the Wicked

Chapter 23
What Daniel Predicted Regarding the Persecution of Antichrist, the Judgment of God, and the Kingdom of the Saints

Chapter 24
Passages from the Psalms of David Which Predict the End of the World and the Last Judgment

Chapter 25
Of Malachi’s Prophecy, in Which He Speaks of the Last Judgment, and of a Cleansing Which Some are to Undergo by Purifying Punishments

Chapter 26
Of the Sacrifices Offered to God by the Saints, Which are to Be Pleasing to Him, as in the Primitive Days and Former Years

Chapter 27
Of the Separation of the Good and the Bad, Which Proclaim the Discriminating Influence of the Last Judgment

Chapter 28
That the Law of Moses Must Be Spiritually Understood to Preclude the Damnable Murmurs of a Carnal Interpretation

Chapter 29
Of the Coming of Elias Before the Judgment, that the Jews May Be Converted to Christ by His Preaching and Explanation of Scripture

Chapter 30
That in the Books of the Old Testament, Where It is Said that God Shall Judge the World, the Person of Christ is Not Explicitly Indicated, But It Plainly Appears from Some Passages in Which the Lord God Speaks that Christ is Meant

Book XXI

Chapter 1
Of the Order of the Discussion, Which Requires that We First Speak of the Eternal Punishment of the Lost in Company with the Devil, and Then of the Eternal Happiness of the Saints

Chapter 2
Whether It is Possible for Bodies to Last for Ever in Burning Fire

Chapter 3
Whether Bodily Suffering Necessarily Terminates in the Destruction of the Flesh

Chapter 4
Examples from Nature Proving that Bodies May Remain Unconsumed and Alive in Fire

Chapter 5
That There are Many Things Which Reason Cannot Account For, and Which are Nevertheless True

Chapter 6
That All Marvels are Not of Nature’s Production, But that Some are Due to Human Ingenuity and Others to Diabolic Contrivance

Chapter 7
That the Ultimate Reason for Believing Miracles is the Omnipotence of the Creator

Chapter 8
That It is Not Contrary to Nature That, in an Object Whose Nature is Known, There Should Be Discovered an Alteration of the Properties Which Have Been Known as Its Natural Properties

Chapter 9
Of Hell, and the Nature of Eternal Punishments

Chapter 10
Whether the Fire of Hell, If It Be Material Fire, Can Burn the Wicked Spirits, that is to Say, Devils, Who are Immaterial

Chapter 11
Whether It is Just that the Punishments of Sins Last Longer Than the Sins Themselves Lasted

Chapter 12
Of the Greatness of the First Transgression, on Account of Which Eternal Punishment is Due to All Who are Not Within the Pale of the Saviour’s Grace

Chapter 13
Against the Opinion of Those Who Think that the Punishments of the Wicked After Death are Purgatorial

Chapter 14
Of the Temporary Punishments of This Life to Which the Human Condition is Subject

Chapter 15
That Everything Which the Grace of God Does in the Way of Rescuing Us from the Inveterate Evils in Which We are Sunk, Pertains to the Future World, in Which All Things are Made New

Chapter 16
The Laws of Grace, Which Extend to All the Epochs of the Life of the Regenerate

Chapter 17
Of Those Who Fancy that No Men Shall Be Punished Eternally

Chapter 18
Of Those Who Fancy That, on Account of the Saints’ Intercession, Man Shall Be Damned in the Last Judgment

Chapter 19
Of Those Who Promise Impunity from All Sins Even to Heretics, Through Virtue of Their Participation of the Body of Christ

Chapter 20
Of Those Who Promise This Indulgence Not to All, But Only to Those Who Have Been Baptized as Catholics, Though Afterwards They Have Broken Out into Many Crimes and Heresies

Chapter 21
Of Those Who Assert that All Catholics Who Continue in the Faith Even Though by the Depravity of Their Lives They Have Merited Hell Fire, Shall Be Saved on Account of the “Foundation” Of Their Faith

Chapter 22
Of Those Who Fancy that the Sins Which are Intermingled with Alms-Deeds Shall Not Be Charged at the Day of Judgment

Chapter 23
Against Those Who are of Opinion that the Punishment Neither of the Devil Nor of Wicked Men Shall Be Eternal

Chapter 24
Against Those Who Fancy that in the Judgment of God All the Accused Will Be Spared in Virtue of the Prayers of the Saints

Chapter 25
Whether Those Who Received Heretical Baptism, and Have Afterwards Fallen Away to Wickedness of Life; Or Those Who Have Received Catholic Baptism, But Have Afterwards Passed Over to Heresy and Schism; Or Those Who Have Remained in the Catholic Church in Which They Were Baptized, But Have Continued to Live Immorally,—May Hope Through the Virtue of the Sacraments for the Remission of Eternal Punishment

Chapter 26
What It is to Have Christ for a Foundation, and Who They are to Whom Salvation as by Fire is Promised

Chapter 27
Against the Belief of Those Who Think that the Sins Which Have Been Accompanied with Almsgiving Will Do Them No Harm

Book XXII

Chapter 1
Of the Creation of Angels and Men

Chapter 2
Of the Eternal and Unchangeable Will of God

Chapter 3
Of the Promise of Eternal Blessedness to the Saints, and Everlasting Punishment to the Wicked

Chapter 4
Against the Wise Men of the World, Who Fancy that the Earthly Bodies of Men Cannot Be Transferred to a Heavenly Habitation

Chapter 5
Of the Resurrection of the Flesh, Which Some Refuse to Believe, Though the World at Large Believes It

Chapter 6
That Rome Made Its Founder Romulus a God Because It Loved Him; But the Church Loved Christ Because It Believed Him to Be God

Chapter 7
That the World’s Belief in Christ is the Result of Divine Power, Not of Human Persuasion

Chapter 8
Of Miracles Which Were Wrought that the World Might Believe in Christ, and Which Have Not Ceased Since the World Believed

Chapter 9
That All the Miracles Which are Done by Means of the Martyrs in the Name of Christ Testify to that Faith Which the Martyrs Had in Christ

Chapter 10
That the Martyrs Who Obtain Many Miracles in Order that the True God May Be Worshipped, are Worthy of Much Greater Honor Than the Demons, Who Do Some Marvels that They Themselves May Be Supposed to Be God

Chapter 11
Against the Platonists, Who Argue from the Physical Weight of the Elements that an Earthly Body Cannot Inhabit Heaven

Chapter 12
Against the Calumnies with Which Unbelievers Throw Ridicule Upon the Christian Faith in the Resurrection of the Flesh

Chapter 13
Whether Abortions, If They are Numbered Among the Dead, Shall Not Also Have a Part in the Resurrection

Chapter 14
Whether Infants Shall Rise in that Body Which They Would Have Had Had They Grown Up

Chapter 15
Whether the Bodies of All the Dead Shall Rise the Same Size as the Lord’s Body

Chapter 16
What is Meant by the Conforming of the Saints to the Image of The Son of God

Chapter 17
Whether the Bodies of Women Shall Retain Their Own Sex in the Resurrection

Chapter 18
Of the Perfect Man, that Is, Christ; And of His Body, that Is, The Church, Which is His Fullness

Chapter 19
That All Bodily Blemishes Which Mar Human Beauty in This Life Shall Be Removed in the Resurrection, the Natural Substance of the Body Remaining, But the Quality and Quantity of It Being Altered So as to Produce Beauty

Chapter 20
That, in the Resurrection, the Substance of Our Bodies, However Disintegrated, Shall Be Entirely Reunited

Chapter 21
Of the New Spiritual Body into Which the Flesh of the Saints Shall Be Transformed

Chapter 22
Of the Miseries and Ills to Which the Human Race is Justly Exposed Through the First Sin, and from Which None Can Be Delivered Save by Christ’s Grace

Chapter 23
Of the Miseries of This Life Which Attach Peculiarly to the Toil of Good Men, Irrespective of Those Which are Common to the Good and Bad

Chapter 24
Of the Blessings with Which the Creator Has Filled This Life, Obnoxious Though It Be to the Curse

Chapter 25
Of the Obstinacy of Those Individuals Who Impugn the Resurrection of the Body, Though, as Was Predicted, the Whole World Believes It

Chapter 26
That the Opinion of Porphyry, that the Soul, in Order to Be Blessed, Must Be Separated from Every Kind of Body, is Demolished by Plato, Who Says that the Supreme God Promised the Gods that They Should Never Be Ousted from Their Bodies

Chapter 27
Of the Apparently Conflicting Opinions of Plato and Porphyry, Which Would Have Conducted Them Both to the Truth If They Could Have Yielded to One Another

Chapter 28
What Plato or Labeo, or Even Varro, Might Have Contributed to the True Faith of the Resurrection, If They Had Adopted One Another’s Opinions into One Scheme

Chapter 29
Of the Beatific Vision

Chapter 30
Of the Eternal Felicity of the City of God, and of the Perpetual Sabbath

On Christian Doctrine

Contents of Christian Doctrine

Book I

Book II

Book III

Book IV

Preface

Book I

Chapter 1
The Interpretation of Scripture Depends on the Discovery and Enunciation of the Meaning, and is to Be Undertaken in Dependence on God’s Aid

Chapter 2
What a Thing Is, and What A Sign

Chapter 3
Some Things are for Use, Some for Enjoyment

Chapter 4
Difference of Use and Enjoyment

Chapter 5
The Trinity the True Object of Enjoyment

Chapter 6
In What Sense God is Ineffable

Chapter 7
What All Men Understand by the Term God

Chapter 8
God to Be Esteemed Above All Else, Because He is Unchangeable Wisdom

Chapter 9
All Acknowledge the Superiority of Unchangeable Wisdom to that Which is Variable

Chapter 10
To See God, the Soul Must Be Purified

Chapter 11
Wisdom Becoming Incarnate, a Pattern to Us of Purification

Chapter 12
In What Sense the Wisdom of God Came to Us

Chapter 13
The Word Was Made Flesh

Chapter 14
How the Wisdom of God Healed Man

Chapter 15
Faith is Buttressed by the Resurrection and Ascension of Christ, and is Stimulated by His Coming to Judgment

Chapter 16
Christ Purges His Church by Medicinal Afflictions

Chapter 17
Christ, by Forgiving Our Sins, Opened the Way to Our Home

Chapter 18
The Keys Given to the Church

Chapter 19
Bodily and Spiritual Death and Resurrection

Chapter 20
The Resurrection to Damnation

Chapter 21
Neither Body Nor Soul Extinguished at Death

Chapter 22
God Alone to Be Enjoyed

Chapter 23
Man Needs No Injunction to Love Himself and His Own Body

Chapter 24
No Man Hates His Own Flesh, Not Even Those Who Abuse It

Chapter 25
A Man May Love Something More Than His Body, But Does Not Therefore Hate His Body

Chapter 26
The Command to Love God and Our Neighbor Includes a Command to Love Ourselves

Chapter 27
The Order of Love

Chapter 28
How We are to Decide Whom to Aid

Chapter 29
We are to Desire and Endeavor that All Men May Love God

Chapter 30
Whether Angels are to Be Reckoned Our Neighbors

Chapter 31
God Uses Rather Than Enjoys Us

Chapter 32
In What Way God Uses Man

Chapter 33
In What Way Man Should Be Enjoyed

Chapter 34
Christ the First Way to God

Chapter 35
The Fulfillment and End of Scripture is the Love of God and Our Neighbor

Chapter 36
That Interpretation of Scripture Which Builds Us Up in Love is Not Perniciously Deceptive Nor Mendacious, Even Though It Be Faulty. The Interpreter, However, Should Be Corrected

Chapter 37
Dangers of Mistaken Interpretation

Chapter 38
Love Never Faileth

Chapter 39
He Who is Mature in Faith, Hope and Love, Needs Scripture No Longer

Chapter 40
What Manner of Reader Scripture Demands

Book II

Chapter 1
Signs, Their Nature and Variety

Chapter 2
Of the Kind of Signs We are Now Concerned with

Chapter 3
Among Signs, Words Hold the Chief Place

Chapter 4
Origin of Writing

Chapter 5
Scripture Translated into Various Languages

Chapter 6
Use of the Obscurities in Scripture Which Arise from Its Figurative Language

Chapter 7
Steps to Wisdom: First, Fear; Second, Piety; Third, Knowledge; Fourth, Resolution; Fifth, Counsel; Sixth, Purification of Heart; Seventh, Stop or Termination, Wisdom

Chapter 8
The Canonical Books

Chapter 9
How We Should Proceed in Studying Scripture

Chapter 10
Unknown or Ambiguous Signs Prevent Scripture from Being Understood

Chapter 11
Knowledge of Languages, Especially of Greek and Hebrew, Necessary to Remove Ignorance or Signs

Chapter 12
A Diversity of Interpretations is Useful. Errors Arising from Ambiguous Words

Chapter 13
How Faulty Interpretations Can Be Emended

Chapter 14
How the Meaning of Unknown Words and Idioms is to Be Discovered

Chapter 15
Among Versions a Preference is Given to the Septuagint and the Itala

Chapter 16
The Knowledge Both of Language and Things is Helpful for the Understanding of Figurative Expressions

Chapter 17
Origin of the Legend of the Nine Muses

Chapter 18
No Help is to Be Despised, Even Though It Come from a Profane Source

Chapter 19
Two Kinds Of Heathen Knowledge

Chapter 20
The Superstitious Nature of Human Institutions

Chapter 21
Superstition of Astrologers

Chapter 22
The Folly of Observing the Stars in Order to Predict the Events of a Life

Chapter 23
Why We Repudiate Arts of Divination

Chapter 24
The Intercourse and Agreement with Demons Which Superstitious Observances Maintain

Chapter 25
In Human Institutions Which are Not Superstitious, There are Some Things Superfluous and Some Convenient and Necessary

Chapter 26
What Human Contrivances We are to Adopt, and What We are to Avoid

Chapter 27
Some Departments of Knowledge, Not of Mere Human Invention, Aid Us in Interpreting Scripture

Chapter 28
To What Extent History is an Aid

Chapter 29
To What Extent Natural Science is an Exegetical Aid

Chapter 30
What the Mechanical Arts Contribute to Exegetics

Chapter 31
Use of Dialectics. Of Fallacies

Chapter 32
Valid Logical Sequence is Not Devised But Only Observed by Man

Chapter 33
False Inferences May Be Drawn from Valid Reasonings, and Vice Versa

Chapter 34
It is One Thing to Know the Laws of Inference, Another to Know the Truth of Opinions

Chapter 35
The Science of Definition is Not False, Though It May Be Applied to Falsities

Chapter 36
The Rules of Eloquence are True, Though Sometimes Used to Persuade Men of What is False

Chapter 37
Use of Rhetoric and Dialectic

Chapter 38
The Science of Numbers Not Created, But Only Discovered, by Man

Chapter 39
To Which of the Above-Mentioned Studies Attention Should Be Given, and in What Spirit

Chapter 40
Whatever Has Been Rightly Said by the Heathen, We Must Appropriate to Our Uses

Chapter 41
What Kind of Spirit is Required for the Study of Holy Scripture

Chapter 42
Sacred Scripture Compared with Profane Authors

Book III

Chapter 1
Summary of the Foregoing Books, and Scope of that Which Follows

Chapter 2
Rule for Removing Ambiguity by Attending to Punctuation

Chapter 3
How Pronunciation Serves to Remove Ambiguity. Different Kinds of Interrogation

Chapter 4
How Ambiguities May Be Solved

Chapter 5
It is a Wretched Slavery Which Takes the Figurative Expressions of Scripture in a Literal Sense

Chapter 6
Utility of the Bondage of the Jews

Chapter 7
The Useless Bondage of the Gentiles

Chapter 8
The Jews Liberated from Their Bondage in One Way, the Gentiles in Another

Chapter 9
Who is in Bondage to Signs, and Who Not

Chapter 10
How We are to Discern Whether a Phrase is Figurative

Chapter 11
Rule for Interpreting Phrases Which Seem to Ascribe Severity to God and the Saints

Chapter 12
Rule for Interpreting Those Sayings and Actions Which are Ascribed to God and the Saints, and Which Yet Seem to the Unskillful to Be Wicked

Chapter 13
Same Subject, Continued

Chapter 14
Error of Those Who Think that There is No Absolute Right and Wrong

Chapter 15
Rule for Interpreting Figurative Expressions

Chapter 16
Rule for Interpreting Commands and Prohibitions

Chapter 17
Some Commands are Given to All in Common, Others to Particular Classes

Chapter 18
We Must Take into Consideration the Time at Which Anything Was Enjoyed or Allowed

Chapter 19
Wicked Men Judge Others by Themselves

Chapter 20
Consistency of Good Men in All Outward Circumstances

Chapter 21
David Not Lustful, Though He Fell into Adultery

Chapter 22
Rule Regarding Passages of Scripture in Which Approval is Expressed of Actions Which are Now Condemned by Good Men

Chapter 23
Rule Regarding the Narrative of Sins of Great Men

Chapter 24
The Character of the Expressions Used is Above All to Have Weight

Chapter 25
The Same Word Does Not Always Signify the Same Thing

Chapter 26
Obscure Passages are to Be Interpreted by Those Which are Clearer

Chapter 27
One Passage Susceptible of Various Interpretations

Chapter 28
It is Safer to Explain a Doubtful Passage by Other Passages of Scripture Than by Reason

Chapter 29
The Knowledge of Tropes is Necessary

Chapter 30
The Rules of Tichonius the Donatist Examined

Chapter 31
The First Rule of Tichonius

Chapter 32
The Second Rule of Tichonius

Chapter 33
The Third Rule of Tichonius

Chapter 34
The Fourth Rule of Tichonius

Chapter 35
The Fifth Rule of Tichonius

Chapter 36
The Sixth Rule of Tichonius

Chapter 37
The Seventh Rule of Tichonius

Book IV

Chapter 1
This Work Not Intended as a Treatise on Rhetoric

Chapter 2
It is Lawful for a Christian Teacher to Use the Art of Rhetoric

Chapter 3
The Proper Age and the Proper Means for Acquiring Rhetorical Skill

Chapter 4
The Duty of the Christian Teacher

Chapter 5
Wisdom of More Importance Than Eloquence to the Christian Teacher

Chapter 6
The Sacred Writers Unite Eloquence with Wisdom

Chapter 7
Examples of True Eloquence Drawn from the Epistles of Paul and the Prophecies of Amos

Chapter 8
The Obscurity of the Sacred Writers, Though Compatible with Eloquence, Not to Be Imitated by Christian Teachers

Chapter 9
How, and with Whom, Difficult Passages are to Be Discussed

Chapter 10
The Necessity for Perspicuity of Style

Chapter 11
The Christian Teacher Must Speak Clearly, But Not Inelegantly

Chapter 12
The Aim of the Orator, According to Cicero, is to Teach, to Delight, and to Move. Of These, Teaching is the Most Essential

Chapter 13
The Hearer Must Be Moved as Well as Instructed

Chapter 14
Beauty of Diction to Be in Keeping with the Matter

Chapter 15
The Christian Teacher Should Pray Before Preaching

Chapter 16
Human Directions Not to Be Despised, Though God Makes the True Teacher

Chapter 17
Threefold Division of The Various Styles of Speech

Chapter 18
The Christian Orator is Constantly Dealing with Great Matters

Chapter 19
The Christian Teacher Must Use Different Styles on Different Occasions

Chapter 20
Examples of the Various Styles Drawn from Scripture

Chapter 21
Examples of the Various Styles, Drawn from the Teachers of the Church, Especially Ambrose and Cyprian

Chapter 22
The Necessity of Variety in Style

Chapter 23
How the Various Styles Should Be Mingled

Chapter 24
The Effects Produced by the Majestic Style

Chapter 25
How the Temperate Style is to Be Used

Chapter 26
In Every Style the Orator Should Aim at Perspicuity, Beauty, and Persuasiveness

Chapter 27
The Man Whose Life is in Harmony with His Teaching Will Teach with Greater Effect

Chapter 28
Truth is More Important Than Expression. What is Meant by Strife About Words

Chapter 29
It is Permissible for a Preacher to Deliver to the People What Has Been Written by a More Eloquent Man Than Himself

Chapter 30
The Preacher Should Commence His Discourse with Prayer to God

Chapter 31
Apology for the Length of the Work








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